Useful Resources

Monetary figures are mentioned in the text. These are notoriously difficult to translate into present day values. For a useful website that helps calculate these values see:

Compare the history of the police in this study course with the website of the Metropolitan Police. This website contains some useful biographical information:

For a typical portrayal of the Bow Street Runners see the Channel 4 series City of Vice:


Beattie, J., Crime and the Courts in England, 1660-1800 (Oxford, 1986).

Emsley, C., The English Police: A Political and Social History (Harlow, 2nd edn., 1996).

Emsley, C., Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900 (Harlow, 3rd edn., 2005).

Paley, R., An Imperfect, Inadequate and Wretched System? Policing London before Peel, Criminal Justice History, 10 (1989).

Petrow, S., The Rise of the Detectives in London, 1869-1914, Criminal Justice History, 14 (1993).

Philips, D., 'A New Engine of Power and Authority: The Institutionalization of Law Enforcement in England, 1780-1830', in V.A.C. Gatrell et al (eds), Crime and the Law: The Social History of Crime in Western Europe (London, 1980).

Reynolds, E.A., Before the Bobbies: The Night Watch and Police Reform in Metropolitan London, 1720-1830 (Basingstoke, 1998).

Reynolds, E.A., 'Sir John Fielding, Sir Charles Witworth, and the Westminster Night Watch Act, 1700-1775', in L.A. Knafla (ed.), Policing and War in Europe (Westport, Conn., 2002).

Taylor, D. Crime, Police and Punishment in England, 1750-1914 (Basingstoke, 1998).

White, J., London in the 19th Century: A Human Awful Wonder of God (London, 2008).


painting of Sir Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel