Throughout life, significant learning is triggered, monitored, and owned by us as individuals. This learning is rooted in our own needs and interests and shaped by our internal values. However, schools that are committed to a national curriculum need to conform to a set of external values. These are unlikely to align exactly with the learning that is based on individual students’ internal values. Efforts have been made to design and develop programmes that can meet this challenge. The main approach offers students choice about what and how they learn. At the same time, it equips them with means to develop appropriate knowledge, skills and ways of thinking in order to support their learning. This approach balances the learning based on students’ internal values with the learning that is required by the normative values of educational systems.