In a globalised world, many learners are studying in and speaking a language that is not their mother tongue. Translanguaging refers to moving flexibly and fluidly between languages. Pedagogical strategies engage the language abilities of bilingual students in teaching and learning, for example by using bilingual partners, organising international collaboration, searching the internet in multiple languages and accessing a wide range of online communities and resources. Translanguaging can expand and deepen students’ understanding and help them to gain broader perspectives. It can also enrich the cultural experience and world views of other learners. But a bilingual classroom may exclude monolingual learners or take for granted the ability of bilinguals to use their languages for effective learning. Translanguaging might also encourage fusion of languages and threaten the survival of ‘standard’ languages (such as International English) that can facilitate access to education and build mutual comprehension between people from different cultural backgrounds.

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