The term ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) is used to describe computer systems that interact with people and with the world in ways that imitate human capabilities and behaviours. AI-powered learning systems are increasingly being deployed in schools, colleges and universities, as well as in corporate training around the world. While many people fear that AI in education means robot teachers, the reality is less dramatic but potentially still transformative. Student-facing applications of AI include intelligent tutoring systems, dialogue-based tutoring systems, exploratory learning environments, automatic writing evaluation, and conversational agents. Teacher-facing applications of AI, although less well developed, might support teachers to enhance their own teaching. There is a need to understand the skills that make human teachers and learners uniquely human, such as critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration. It is important that educators, learning scientists and other stakeholders engage with the topic of AI to help shape both the development of AI-powered systems, and teaching and learning approaches that make appropriate use of AI.