Damage to the nervous system may be due to a tumour, aneurysm of aorta, or trauma causing localised problems depending on the area and type of damage.
Some conditions affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), and some the peripheral nervous system, which transmits information to and from all other parts of the body.
Damage to the cranial nerves can affect the sense of smell, visual focus and eye movement, facial expressions, tongue movement and certain aspects of respiration, any of which can cause difficulties in course-related activities.
Students may catch glandular fever and this can cause polyneuritis, which may affect the tips of the fingers resulting in writing difficulties, slurring in speech affecting presentations, and if severe there may be some paralysis.
Single-sided paralysis to the face (Bell's palsy) may suddenly happen but recovery usually occurs and vision is not normally affected.
Spinal cord injury can cause functional limitations such as paralysis, limited mobility and dexterity and sensory loss, which affects the ability to feel things.
The damage may occur because of trauma or disease (such as polio, spina bifida, Friedreich's ataxia).
The main differences between people who have neurological impairments, such as MS, and those with spinal injury is the effects experienced at the levels of fatigue, pain and reliance on a wheelchair.