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Professor John Wolffe

Profile summary

  • Professor of Religious History
  • Faculty of Arts
  • Religious Studies
  • john.wolffe

Professional biography

I was an undergraduate  and doctoral student at the University of Oxford, then held temporary posts at the University of York for 5 years. I first joined the Open University as an Associate Lecturer in the Yorkshire region in 1990, and joined the full time staff as Lexturer in Religious Studies in 1990. I was promoted Professor of Religious History in 2004. During my years at the OU I have been a member of numerous course teams and have chaired two production course teams in Religious Studies (AA313 Religion in Victorian Britain) and AA307 Religion in History. I have also served two terms as Sub/Associate Dean (Research) in Arts from 1994 to 1997 and from 2007 to 2009. I was Head of Department of Religious Studies from 1998 to 2001 and from 2006 to 2007. Between 2009 and 2011 I led the initial development of the Digital Humanities thematic research network.  I currently have significant external roles as President of the Ecclesiastical History Society and a member of the REF sub-panel for Theology and Religious Studies.

Contact
Prof John Wolffe
Faculty of Arts
The Open University
Walton Hall
MILTON KEYNES, MK7 6AA

01908-655916

john.wolffe@open.ac.uk

Research interests

My research interests relate to British (and to some extent English-speaking world) religious history since the late 18th century. More specifically I am interested in anti-Catholicism, evangelicalism, responses to prominent deaths, and other interfaces between religion and nationalism/national identity. In recent years I have led the following major externally-funded projects:

  • Building on History, funded by the AHRC for knowledge exchange/public engagement projects in collaboration with the Anglican Diocese of London and other religious groups in the London area. For further information see www.open.ac.uk/buildingonhistory and www.open.ac.uk/arts/religion-in-london.
  • Protestant-Catholic Conflict: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Realities funded by the RCUK Global Uncertainties programme. For further information see www.open.ac.uk/Arts/protestant-catholic-conflict and  www.niassembly.gov.uk/Documents/RaISe/.../wolffe241013.pdf  for a briefing paper recently prepared for the Northern Ireland Assembly which summarizes some key insights from the project. 
  • I currently hold a Global Uncertainties ‘Leadership Fellowship, entitled Religion, Martyrdom and Global Uncertainties entailing endeavours to take and overview of the interface between ‘religion’ and ‘security’ alongside new research on ideas of martyrdom/sacrificial death, engaging with issues raised by the centenary of the First World War.

Publications

My recent publications include:

(with Mark Hutchinson), A Short History of Global Evangelicalism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

(edited), Protestant-Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the Twenty-First Century (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013).

'The mutations of martyrdom in Britain and Ireland c1850-1920', in Kelly, James and Lyons, Marian eds. Death and Dying in Ireland and Europe: Historical Perspectives  (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2013), pp. 349–368.

'The chicken or the egg? Building Anglican churches and building congregations in a Victorian London suburb', Material Religion, 9 (2013) pp. 36–59.

(edited), Irish Religious Conflict in Comparative Perspective : Catholics, Protestants and Muslims (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2014, forthcoming).

See also Open Research Online for further details of my research publications.

Publications

The chicken or the egg? Building Anglican churches and building congregations in a Victorian London suburb (2013-03)
Wolffe, John
Material Religion, 9(1) (pp. 36-59)
Digital technologies: help or hindrance for the humanities? (2012-02)
Barker, Elton; Bissell, Christopher; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia and Wolffe, John
Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 11(1-2) (pp. 185-200)
Protestant-Catholic divisions in Europe and the United States: an historical and comparative perspective (2011-09)
Wolffe, John
Politics, Religion & Ideology, 12(3) (pp. 241-256)
Lord Palmerston and religion: a reappraisal (2005-09-01)
Wolffe, John
English Historical Review, 120(488) (pp. 907-936)
Lord Palmerston and religion: a reappraisal (2005-09)
Wolffe, John
English Historical Review, 120(488) (pp. 907-936)
Responding to national grief: memorial sermons on the famous in Britain 1800-1914 (1996)
Wolffe, John
Mortality, 1(3) (pp. 283-296)
A Short History of Global Evangelicalism (2012-04)
Hutchinson, Mark and Wolffe, John
ISBN : 978-0-521-76945-7 | Publisher : Cambridge University Press | Published : New York
The expansion of evangelicalism: The age of Wilberforce, More, Chalmers and Finney (2006-11)
Wolffe, John
A History of Evangelicalism
ISBN : 9781844741472 | Publisher : Inter-Varsity Press | Published : Nottingham
The religious census of 1851 in Yorkshire (2005-12)
Wolffe, John
Borthwick Papers
ISBN : 1904497152 | Publisher : Borthwick Institute Publications | Published : York, UK
Great Deaths: Grieving, Religion and Nationhood in Victorian and Edwardian Britain (2000)
Wolffe, John
British Academy Postdoctoral Fellowship Mongraphs
ISBN : 197262384 | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : Oxford
God and Greater Britain: Religion and National Life in Britain and Ireland 1843-1945 (1994-07-14)
Wolffe, John
ISBN : 415035708 | Publisher : Routledge
The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain 1829-1860 (1991)
Wolffe, John
ISBN : 198201990 | Publisher : Clarendon Press (Oxford Historical Monographs)
The mutations of martyrdom in Britain and Ireland c1850-1920 (2013-05-31)
Wolffe, John
In: Kelly, James and Lyons, Marian eds. Death and Dying in Ireland and Europe: Historical Perspectives (pp. 349-368)
ISBN : 978-0-7165-3188-3 | Publisher : Irish Academic Press | Published : Dublin
Christianity: loss of monopoly (2012-02-16)
Guest, Mathew; Olson, Elizabeth and Wolffe, John
In: Woodhead, Linda and Catto, Rebecca eds. Religion and Change in Modern Britain (pp. 57-78)
ISBN : 9780415575805 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : London, UK
The Jesuit as villain in nineteenth-century British fiction (2012)
Wolffe, John
In: Clarke, Peter and Methuen, Charlotte eds. The Church and Literature. Studies in Church History (48) (pp. 308-320)
ISBN : 978-0954680992 | Publisher : The Boydell Press | Published : Woodbridge
Transatlantic Visitors and Evangelical Networks, 1829-1861 (2012)
Wolffe, John
In: Gregory, Jeremy and McLeod, Hugh eds. International Religious Networks. Studies in Church History: Subsidia (pp. 183-193)
ISBN : 978 0 95468 100 5 | Publisher : The Boydell Press/Ecclesiastical History Society | Published : Woodbridge
The Victorian funeral sermon (2012)
Wolffe, John
In: Francis, Keith A. and Gibson, William eds. Oxford Handbook of the British Sermon 1689-1301. Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology (pp. 338-353)
ISBN : 978-0-19-958359-1 | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : Oxford
Protestantism, monarchy and the defence of Christian Britain 1837–2005 (2010-05)
Wolffe, John
In: Brown, Callum G and Snape, Michael eds. Secularisation in the Christian World (pp. 57-74)
ISBN : 978-0-7546-6131-3 | Publisher : Ashgate | Published : Farnham
Religious history (2010)
Wolffe, John
In: Hinnells, John R ed. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, 2nd edition (pp. 56-72)
ISBN : 978-0-415-47328-6 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : London
British sermons on national events (2010)
Wolffe, John
In: Ellison, Robert H. ed. A New History of the Sermon: The Nineteenth Century (pp. 181-206)
ISBN : 978 90 04 18572 2 | Publisher : Brill | Published : Leiden
William Wilberforce's Practical View (1797) and its reception (2008-06-19)
Wolffe, John
In: Cooper, Kate and Gregory, Jeremy eds. Revival and Resurgence in Christian History. Studies in Church History (44) (pp. 175-184)
ISBN : 9780954680947 | Publisher : Ecclesiastical History Society | Published : Saffron Walden
Anti-Catholicism and the British Empire, 1815-1914 (2008)
Wolffe, John
In: Carey, Hilary M ed. Empires of Religion. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series (pp. 43-63)
ISBN : 9780230208803 | Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan | Published : Basingstoke
Palmerston and the church (2007)
Wolffe, John
In: Brown, David and Taylor, Miles eds. Palmerston Studies (pp. 19-38)
ISBN : 9780854328772 | Publisher : University of Southampton | Published : Southampton
British protestants and Europe, 1820–60: some perceptions and influences (2007)
Wolffe, John
In: Bonney, Richard and Trim, D.J.B. eds. The Development of Pluralism in Modern Britain and France. Studies in the History of Religious and Political Pluralism (1) (pp. 207-226)
ISBN : 978-3-03910-571-7 | Publisher : Peter Lang | Published : Oxford
Elite and popular religion in the religious census of 30 March 1851 (2006)
Wolffe, John
In: Cooper, Kate and Gregory, Jeremy eds. Elite and Popular Religion. Studies in Church History (42) (pp. 360-371)
ISBN : 954680928 | Publisher : Ecclesiastical History Society | Published : Woodbridge
Anglicanism, Presbyterianism and the religious identities of the United Kingdom (2005-12)
Wolffe, John
In: Gilley, Sheridan and Stanley, Brian eds. World Christianities c.1815–c.1914. Cambridge History of Christianity (8) (pp. 301-322)
ISBN : 521814561 | Publisher : Cambridge University Press | Published : Cambridge
Nicholas Armstrong (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : Oxford, UK
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (1801–1885) (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford dictionary of national biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in Association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Edward Bickersteth (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Robert Bickersteth (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Richard Blakeney (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Sir Culling Eardley (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
George William Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861441X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
George Cornelius Gorham (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthews, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
John Hope (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G and Harrison, Brian eds. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Sir Robert Inglis (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Robert Jocelyn, 3rd Earl of Roden (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
George Kenyon, 2nd Baron Kenyon (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Sir Harcourt Lees (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Robert James McGhee (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Charles Newdigate Newdegate (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Charles de Laet Waldo Sibthorp (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the Academic Press | Published : Oxford, UK
William Wilberforce (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
James Begg (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
John Campbell Colquhoun (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : Oxford, UK
James Edward Gordon (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Alexander Haldane (1800–1882) (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford dictionary of national biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Hugh Boyd McNeile (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
William Murphy (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Augustus Granville Stapleton (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
Hugh Stowell (2004-09-23)
Wolffe, John
In: Matthew, H.C.G. and Harrison, Brian eds. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
ISBN : 019861411X | Publisher : Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy | Published : Oxford, UK
National occasions at St Paul's Since 1800 (2004-08-16)
Wolffe, John
In: Keene, Derek; Burns, Arthur and Saint, Andrew eds. St Paul's The Cathedral Church of London 604-2004 (pp. 381-391)
ISBN : 0 300092 76 8 | Publisher : Yale University Press | Published : New Haven, US, and London, UK
Introduction (2004)
Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Religion in History: Conflict, Conversion and Coexistence (pp. 5-12)
ISBN : 719071070 | Publisher : Manchester University | Published : Manchester
Historical models of evangelical social transformation (2004)
Wolffe, John
In: Hilborn, David ed. Movement for Change: Evangelicals and Social Transformation (pp. 20-37)
ISBN : 1842272756 | Publisher : Paternoster Press | Published : Carlisle
Judging the nation: evangelicals and divine retribution, 1817-1861 (2004)
Wolffe, John
In: Cooper, Kate and Gregory, Jeremy eds. Retribution, Repentance and Reconciliation. Studies in Church History (40) (pp. 291-300)
ISBN : 952973391 | Publisher : Ecclesiastical History Society | Published : Woodbridge
Contentious Christians: Protestant-Catholic conflict since the Reformation (2004)
Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Religion in History: Conflict, Conversion and Coexistence (pp. 97-128)
ISBN : 9780719071072 | Publisher : University of Manchester Press | Published : Manchester
Religion and contemporary conflict in historical perspective (2004)
Herbert, David and Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Religion in History: Conflict, Conversion and Coexistence (pp. 286-320)
ISBN : 9780719071072 | Publisher : Manchester University Press | Published : Manchester
The Hindu Renaissance and notions of universal religion (2004)
Beckerlegge, Gwilym
In: Wolffe, John ed. Religion in History: Conflict, Conversion and Coexistence (pp. 129-160)
ISBN : 719071070 | Publisher : Manchester University Press in association with the Open University | Published : Manchester
'Evangelicals and Pentecostals: Indigenizing a Global Gospel' in Global Religious Movements in Regional Context (2002-03)
Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Global Religious Movements in Regional Context. Religion Today: Tradition, Modernity and Change (pp. 13-108)
ISBN : 754608190 | Publisher : Ashgate
Civic religious identities and responses to prominent deaths in Edinburgh and Cardiff, 1847-1910 (2001)
Wolffe, John
In: Pope, Robert ed. Religion and National Identity: Scotland and Wales, c 1700-2000 (pp. 163-185)
ISBN : 070831662X | Publisher : University of Wales Press
Marching forth with the banner of Christ unfurled (2000)
Wolffe, John
In: Chadwick, Henry and Ward, Allison eds. Not Angels but Anglicans: A History of Christianity in the British Isles (pp. 255-260)
ISBN : 1853113522 | Publisher : Canterbury Press | Published : Norwich
Royalty and public grief in Britain: an historical perspective 1817-1997 (1999)
Wolffe, John
In: Walter, Tony ed. The Mourning for Diana (pp. 53-64)
Publisher : Berg | Published : Oxford
A transatlantic perspective: Protestantism and national identities in mid-nineteenth century Britain and the United States (1998)
Wolffe, John
In: McBridge, Ian and Claydon, Tony eds. Protestantism and national identity in Britain and Ireland, c. 1650-c. 1850 (pp. 291-309)
ISBN : 521620775 | Publisher : Cambridge University Press | Published : Cambridge
Historical method and Christian vision in the study of evangelical history (1998)
Wolffe, John
In: Hutchinson, M and Kalu, O eds. A Global Faith: Essays on Evangelicalism and Globalization (pp. 89-107)
ISBN : 1864083956 | Publisher : Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity | Published : Sydney
Introduction: Victorian religion in context (1997)
Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Culture and Empire. Religion in Victorian Britain (5) (pp. 1-20)
ISBN : 719051843 | Publisher : Manchester University Press | Published : Manchester
'Praise to the holiest in the height': hymns and church music (1997)
Wolffe, John
In: Wolffe, John ed. Culture and Empire. Religion in Victorian Britain (5) (pp. 59-99)
ISBN : 719051843 | Publisher : Manchester University Press | Published : Manchester
Followers of 'Mohammed, Kalee and Dada Nanuk': the presence of Islam and South Asian religions in Victorian Britiain (1997)
Beckerlegge, G.
In: Wolffe, John ed. Religion in Victorian Britain (pp. 222-267)
ISBN : 719051843 | Publisher : Manchester University Press in association with the Open University | Published : Manchester, U.K.
To die is gain? Religion, the monarchy and national identity in Britain 1817-1910 (1996)
Wolffe, John
In: Brohed, Ingmar ed. Church and People in Britain and Scandinavia. Bibliotheca historico-ecclesiastica lundensis (36) (pp. 333-346)
ISBN : 9179663877 | Publisher : Lund University Press | Published : Lund
Unity in diversity?: North Atlantic evangelical thought in the mid-nineteenth century (1996)
Wolffe, John
In: Swanson, R N ed. Unity and Diversity in the Church: Papers Read at the 1994 Summer Meeting, and the 1995 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society. Studies in Church History (32) (pp. 363-375)
ISBN : 063119892X | Publisher : Blackwell Publishers | Published : Oxford
Change and continuity in British anti-Catholicism, 1829-1982 (1996)
Wolffe, John
In: Tallett, Frank and Atkin, Nicholas eds. Catholicism in Britain and France since 1789 (pp. 67-86)
ISBN : 1852851007 | Publisher : The Hambledon Press | Published : London
Unity in diversity: North Atlantic evangelical thought in the mid-nineteenth century (1996)
Wolffe, John
In: Swanson, R. N. ed. Unity and Diversity in the Church. Studies in Church History (32) (pp. 363-375)
ISBN : 063119892x | Publisher : Blackwell Publishers Ltd | Published : Oxford
Anglicanism (1995)
Wolffe, John
In: Paz, D G ed. Nineteenth-Century English Religious Traditions: Restrospect and Prospect. Contributions to the Study of Religion (44) (pp. 1-32)
ISBN : 313294763 | Publisher : Greenwood | Published : Westport, CT
And there's another country: religion, the State and British identities (1994-05-26)
Wolffe, John
In: Parsons, Gerald ed. The Growth of Religious Diversity: Britain from 1945 (pp. 85-121)
ISBN : 415083281 | Publisher : Routledge in association with The Open University | Published : London, U.K. and New York, NY U.S.
Religion and 'secularization' (1994)
Wolffe, John
In: Johnson, Paul ed. Twentieth-Century Britain: Economic, Social and Cultural Change (pp. 427-441)
ISBN : 582228174 | Publisher : Longman | Published : Harlow
Anti-Catholicism and evangelical identity in Britain and the United States, 1830-1860 (1994)
Wolffe, John
In: Bebbington, David William; Noll, Mark A. and Rawlyk, George A. eds. Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies of Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles and Beyond, 1700-1990 (pp. 179-197)
ISBN : 195083628 | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : New York
Protestant-Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the 21st Century: the Dynamics of Religious Difference (2013-04)
Wolffe, John ed.
ISBN : 978-1-137-28972-8 | Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan | Published : Basingstoke
Global Religious Movements in Regional Context (2002)
Wolffe, John ed.
ISBN : 754608190 | Publisher : Ashgate | Published : Aldershot
Culture and Empire (1997)
Wolffe, John ed.
Religion in Victorian Britain
ISBN : 719051843 | Publisher : Manchester University Press | Published : Manchester
Evangelical Faith and Public Zeal: Evangelicals and Society in Britain 1780-1980 (1995)
Wolffe, John ed.
ISBN : 281047820 | Publisher : SPCK
Building on History: the Church in London online resource guide (2010-07)
Maiden, John; Wolffe, John; Burns, Arthur; Evans, Neil and Kelly, Declan
Web resource
The lives and technologies of early career researchers (2009-09)
James, Laura; Norman, John; De Baets, Anne-Sophie; Burchell-Hughes, Ingrid; Burchmore, Helen; Philips, Amyas; Sheppard, Dan; Wilks, Linda and Wolffe, John
CARET, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.