Welcome to Frederick Toates' Personal Pages

Biological PsychologyObsessive Compulsive Disorder
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Frederick M. Toates
 DPhil DSc

Professor of Biological Psychology
Department of Life Sciences
Faculty of Science, The Open University
Walton Hall, Milton Keynes
MK7 6AA, United Kingdom

E-mail: f.toates@open.ac.uk

Subject Specialities:

These are directed to one single central theme: the development of a comprehensive predictive theory of the control of animal and human behaviour, which represents the roles of contributing factors such as motivation, emotion and learning.

Research Areas:

  • Motivation and the control of behaviour
  • Psychobiology of stress. A systems theory integration of the literature.
  • Animal welfare. The application of motivation and learning models to issues of welfare, stress and husbandry.
  • Neurosis. Experimental accounts and links with patients’ perspectives.
  • Future work. To produce a synthesis of the psychology, ethology and neurobiology of motivation using systems concepts.



  1. F.Toates (2009) Burrhus F.Skinner. Palgrave Macmillan, Bassingstoke.
  2. F.Toates (2007) Biological Psychology. 2nd edition. Pearson Educational Ltd, Harlow.
  3. F.Toates and O.Coschug-Toates (2002) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Class Publishing, London.
  4. F.Toates (2001) Biological Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Pearson Educational Ltd, Harlow.
  5. F.Toates (1995) Stress - Conceptual and Biological Aspects. Wiley, Chichester.
  6. F.M.Toates (1990) Obsessional Thoughts and Behaviour, Thorsons, Wellingborough. Republished as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder by Thorsons, London, 1992.
  7. F.M.Toates (1986) Biological Foundations of Behaviour, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.
  8. F.M.Toates (1986) Motivational Systems. Cambridge University Press [Spanish-language edition published in 1990]
  9. F.M.Toates (1980) Animal Behaviour - A Systems Approach. Wiley, Chichester.
  10. F.M.Toates (1975) Control Theory in Biology and Experimental Psychology, Hutchinson Educational Ltd., London.

Edited Books:

  1. F.Toates (2007) Pain. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  2. F.M.Toates and N. Rowland (1987) Hunger and Thirst. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  3. J. Brown, A. Cooper, T. Horton, F. Toates and D. Zeldin (1986) Science in Schools. Open University Press, Milton Keynes
  4. F.M.Toates and T. Halliday (1980) Analysis of Motivational Processes. Academic Press, London

(in chronological order last 10 years only)

  1. F. Toates (2009) An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 46, in press.
  2. F. Toates (2006) A hierarchical model of behaviour, cognition and consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 75-118.
  3. F. Toates (2005) Evolutionary psychology: Towards a more integrative model. Biology and Philosophy, 20, 305-328.
  4. F. Toates (2004) Skinner’s double life as both perpetrator and innocent victim. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, 57-63.
  5. F. Toates (2004) Cognition, motivation, emotion and action: a dynamic and vulnerable interdependence. Applied Animal Behavioural Science 86, 173-204.
  6. F. Toates (2004) ‘In two minds’ – consideration of evolutionary precursors permits a more integrative theory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 57.
  7. F. TOATES (2002) Setting Norman’s dual model into a broader context – a commentary on the paper by Norman. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 25, 119-120.
  8. F. Toates (2002) Application of a multilevel model of behavioural control to understanding emotion. Behavioural Processes, 60, 99-114.
  9. F. Toates (2002) Physiology, motivation and the organization of behaviour. In Ethology of Domestic Animals – An Introduction (ed. P.Jensen), CAB publishing, Wallingford
  10. F. Toates (2001) Patients’ perspectives on obsessive-compulsive disorder. In Obsessive Compulsive Disorders: a Practical Guide to Management (eds. N.Fineberg, D.Marazitti and D.Stein), pp.177-182, Martin Dunitz, London.
  11. F. Toates (2000) Multiple factors controlling behaviour: Implications for stress and welfare In The Biology of Animal Stress (eds. G.P.Moberg and J.A.Mench), CAB International, Wallingford, pp.199-226.
  12. F. Toates (1998) Sensory systems. In Psychology: An Integrated Approach (ed. M.Eysenck), Addison Wesley Longman, pp.100-137.
  13. F. Toates (1998) The biological bases of behaviour. In Psychology: An Integrated Approach (ed. M.Eysenck), Addison Wesley Longman, pp.23-67.
  14. F. Toates (1998) The interaction of cognitive and stimulus-response processes in the control of behaviour. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 22, 59-83.
  15. F.Toates (1997) Special review - Mind, meaning and mental disorder - The nature of causal explanation in psychology and psychiatry. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 1161-1165.
  16. F. Toates (1997) On getting to grips with stimuli and the causation of behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 54, 63-66.
  17. P. Jensen and F. Toates (1997) Stress as a state of motivational systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 53, 145-156.
  18. F. Toates (1997) Has pure ethology the right foundations for applied ethology? Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 53, 1-13.
  19. F. Toates (1997) Special Review - Theoretical approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 175-178.
  20. F. Toates (1996) Living with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psyche, 1, 4-6
  21. F. Toates (1996) The hippocampus seen in the context of declarative and procedural control - a commentary on the paper by Eichenbaum et al Behavioural and Brain Sciences , 19, 771-772.
  22. F. Toates (1996) Cognition and evolution - An organization of action perspective. Behavioural Processes, 35, 239-250.
  23. F. Toates (1996) The embodied self- A biological perspective. In Understanding the Self, (ed. R. Stevens), Sage, London, pp.35-88.
  24. F. Toates (1995) On giving a more active and selective role to consciousness - a commentary on the paper by J. Gray Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 18, 700-701.
  25. F. Toates (1995) Animal motivation and cognition. In Comparative Approaches to Cognitive Science (eds. H. Roitblat and J-A. Meyer), MIT Press, Cambridge, pp.435-464

NOTE: These pages are the personal responsibility of F.Toates, and the views expressed are not necessarily those of the Open University.
The University is not responsible for the content of these pages.

Last updated Mar-2009