I joined the Open University as a Lecturer in Policing Organisation and Practice in 2018. My teaching duties are focused on the Police Constable Degree Apprenticeship, particularly in relation to sociological concepts, theories and perspectives relevant to policing practice. My PhD was concerned with understanding the conditions under which criminological phenomena such as street gangs fail to develop. I have an abiding interest in the policy implications that can be derived from such absences and exceptions - particularly in relation to preventing a range of social harms. I’m also interested in the intersections between these issues and identity construction, subcultural theory and restorative justice. My current research focus is policing ethics and integrity.