B. R. Ambedkar was a politician and pioneer social reformer for the rights of 'untouchables' in India. With the financial help of the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda, Ambedkar studied at Elphinstone High School and Elphinstone College in Bombay. In 1913, he went to study at Columbia University, New York, on a three-year scholarship from the Gaekwad. He received a PhD in economics and then went to England. He was admitted to the London School of Economics for a DSc and to Gray's Inn to study for the Bar. However, short of money, Ambedkar returned to India and entered the Baroda state service.
In 1920, Ambedkar returned to England. In 1923 he was called to the Bar and received his DSc. He then returned to India and set up a legal practice in Bombay. Ambedkar became a champion of untouchable rights. In 1930, he was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London. This cemented his role as spokesperson for the 'scheduled castes' and he became involved in negotations with M. K. Gandhi which led to the 1932 Poona Pact. The Poona Pact gave separate electoral representation to the scheduled castes.
Ambedkar was one of the chief authors of the Indian Constitution after independence and the Hindu Code Bill, but he resigned from government in 1951. In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, and he died later that year.