Faculty of Social Sciences
I am currently chairing the Psychology Programme Team, which oversees the presentation of psychology modules, and acting as the Qualification Director for Q07 (BSc Psychology). In 2013-2014 I co-chaired (with Jean McAvoy) the production of the 60-credit Level 1 psychology module Investigating psychology 1 (DE100). I previously co-chaired (with Nicola Brace) the production of Discovering psychology (DSE141), and for this work we received the 2013 OU Teaching Award.
My main research interests lie in the interdisciplinary study of social and psychological aspects of shared beliefs and social remembering, especially in relation to conspiracy theories, antisemitism and Holocaust remembrance. I am also interested more generally in the relationship between psychology and history.
At present, I am working on a project which looks at the visual rhetoric of atrocity. Specifically, I am interested in the role which atrocity photographs played, and continue to play, in forging the public memory of the Second World War in the countries of the former Yugoslavia. Focusing specifically on visual representations of one of the most controversial episodes of that war, namely genocidal violence perpetrated in the Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945), the project examines the history of the relevant atrocity images, scrutinizes the institutional dynamic behind their collection and preservation, and explores their subsequent dissemination through books, exhibitions media reports , films, etc. The project pays particular attention to the continuities and discontinuities in the ways in which atrocity photographs shaped the public perception of the history of the Second World War, first in socialist Yugoslavia, and later also in successor states, and examines how images were strategically and selectively mobilized in different contexts to sustain particular local, national and regional political or cultural agendas.
Also, together with Cristian Tileag? from Loughborough University, I recently edited a Special Section of Qualitative Psychology on the use of archives in qualitative psychology (to be published in 2016). This work builds on our mutual interest in the relationship between psychology and history and the different ways in which each discipline can enhance the understanding of the other. In 2014 we co-edited the book Psychology and History: Interdisciplinary Explorations, which includes contributions from psychologists and historians interested in pursuing interdisciplinary dialogue
Previously I worked on a number of projects on conspiracy theories, antisemitism and different aspects of Holocaust memorialisation.
Conspiracy theories: My first book Conspiracy Theories: Serbia vs. the New World Order, published in Serbian in 2006, was based on my PhD thesis which I completed at Loughborough University in 2002. By examining the proliferation of conspiracy theories in Serbian society in the 1990s, this book offered a unique look at a hitherto neglected aspect of Serbian culture, and remains an authoritative account of the rise of conspiracy culture and antisemitism under Milosevic. In 2011 I completed a second monograph on conspiracy theories, published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2011. Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introductionmoves beyond the Serbian context and offers an interdisciplinary account of conspiracy theories as a global phenomenon, exploring their political, historical and psychological dimensions. The paperback edition of this book will be published in the spring of 2015.
Antisemitism:In 2003-2005, I worked on a project on antisemitism in the Serbian Orthodox Church. The project consisted of a case study of the rehabilitation, since the late 1980s, of Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic (1880-1956), a controversial Serbian Orthodox Christian theologian, who, in spite of his virulently antisemitic views, has come to be regarded within the Serbian Orthodox Christian culture as the most important religious figure since medieval times. By exploring the representations of Bishop Velimirovic in the media and in commemorative discourse, I examined the complementary dynamics of repression and denial of controversy which are constitutive of Velimirovic's continuing popularity. This project yielded a number of journal articles, and the book Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic published in 2008 by Central European University Press.
Holocaust remembrance in Serbia: In 2007 I received funds from the British Academy (under the Small Grants Scheme) for the project entitled 'History and politics of Holocaust remembrance: Semlin Judenlager in Serbian public memory (1945 to the present)'. This research explored the history of Holocaust remembrance in Serbian society, focusing on the memory of a specific site of Jewish suffering – the Semlin Judenlager. Semlin was the concentration camp in Belgrade where approximately 7,000 Jewish women, children and the elderly were murdered between March and May 1942. A monograph based on this research, which examines the post-war fate of Staro Sajmište , the site where the Semlin camp was located, was published in Serbian in December 2011. For more information on this research and the history of the Semlin Judenlager please visit the Semlin Judenlager project website.
Holocaust survivor testimony: In 2010 I embarked on a project which explored the testimonies of the survivors of the Holocaust in Yugoslavia. I was interested in the institutional, ideological and cultural context of the production, collection, dissemination and reception of testimonies collected both under communism and after 1989, during the turbulent times of post-communist transition and the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Through the analysis of Holocaust survivor testimonies produced in specific cultural and political contexts, I explored broader issues concerning the social and historical contingency of Holocaust testimony and the complex relationship between – and mutual interdependence of – individual, collected, and collective memory. I began work on this project in early 2011, thanks to the Charles H. Revson Foundation Fellowship which enabled me to spend three months as a fellow at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Centre for Advanced Holocaust Studies in Washington, DC.
I am a member of the Psycho-Social Research Programme of the Centre for Citizenship, Identities and Governance(CCIG) based in the Faculty of Social Sciences, and the War, Conflict and Politics Research Groupbased in the Department of History.
A selection of my research publications can be viewed at The Open University's Open Research Online.
Tileaga, C. and Byford, J., eds (2014). Psychology and History: Interdisciplinary Explorations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Byford, J. (2011). Staro sajmište: Mesto secanja, zaborava i sporenja [Staro Sajmište: A Site Remembered, Forgotten, Contested]. Belgrade: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava.
Byford, J. (2011). Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Byford, J. (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-Communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic. (Budapest and New York: CEU Press, 2008) (A slightly shorter version of the book was published in Serbian in 2005 as Potiskivanje i poricanje antisemitizma: secanje na vladiku Nikolaja Velimirovica u savremenoj srpskoj pravoslavnoj kulturi, Belgrade: HCHRS)
Byford, J. (2006). Teorija zavere: Srbija protiv 'novog svetskog poretka'. [Conspiracy Theory: Serbia vs. 'the New World Order']. Belgrade: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava.
Byford, J. (forthcoming). Political instrumentalisation of a site of the Holocaust: Contested memory of the Semlin camp in Belgrade. In G. Ognjenovi? (Ed.). Politicization of History: Ex-Yugoslavia and its Successor States. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Byford, J and Tileaga, C, (in press), Accounts of a troubled past: Psychology, history, and texts of experience. Qualitative Psychology, Special Section: Qualitative psychology and the archive.
Tileaga, C. and Byford, J. (in press). Qualitative psychology and the archive: Introduction to the Special Section. Qualitative Psychology, Special Section: Qualitative psychology and the archive.
Byford, J. and Tileaga, C (2014). Social psychology, history, and the study of the Holocaust: The perils of interdisciplinary “borrowing”. Peace and Conflict 20, no.4, 349-364.
Byford, J. (2014). Remembering Jasenovac: Survivor testimonies and the cultural dimension of bearing witness. Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 28, no.1, 58-84.
Byford, J. (2014). Beyond belief: The social psychology of conspiracy theories and the study of ideology. In C. Antaki and S. Condor (eds) Rhetoric, Ideology and Social Psychology: Essays in Honour of Michael Billig. London: Routledge, 83-94.
Byford, J. (2013). The Semlin Judenlager in Belgrade: A Contested Memory. Discussion Papers, vol. 3, The Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme, available at https://www.un.org/en/holocaustremembrance/docs/paper20.shtml
Byford, J. (2013). Testimony. In E. Keightley and M. Pickering (eds) Research Methods for Memory Studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 200–214.
Byford, J. (2013 ). Between marginalization and instrumentalization: Holocaust memory in Serbia since the late 1980s. In J. Michlic and J.P. Himka (eds) Bringing the Dark Past to Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, pp. 516-548.
Byford, J. (2012). Négocier un lieu dans la mémoire collective pour la destruction des Juifs de Serbie : le cas du Judenlager Semlin [Negotiating a place for the destruction of Jews in Serbian public memory: The case of the Semlin Judenlager]. In P. Bertinchamps (ed.), Staro Sajmište, un camp de concentration. Paris: Non Lieu, pp. 169–201.
Byford, J. (2011). The collaborationist administration and the treatment of the Jews in Nazi-occupied Serbia. In S.P.Ramet and O. Listhaug (Eds.), Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two: Collaboration and Resistance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 109–127.
Byford, J. (2011). Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic: 'Lackey of the Germans' or a 'victim of Fascism'? In S.P. Ramet and O. Listhaug (Eds), Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two: Collaboration and Resistance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 128–152.
Byford, J. (2011). The Willing Bystanders: Dimitrije Ljotic, 'Shield Collaboration' and the Destruction of Serbia's Jews (1941-1942). In Rebecca Haynes and Martyn C. Rady (Eds.), In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. London: I.B.Tauris, pp. 295–312.
Byford, J. (2011). Η «ημιαναγνωριση» του Ολοκαυτωματος: Αναζητωντας μια θεση στη οημοσια μνημη της Σερβιας για την εξοντωση των Εβραιων ['Half-Recognizing' the Holocaust: Remembrance of the Semlin camp in Belgrade since the 1980s]. In G. Antoniou, et al. (Eds.) Το Ολοκαυτωμα στα Βαλκανια [The Holocaust in the Balkans]. Thessalonica: Epikentro, pp. 155–206.
Byford, J. (2010). 'Shortly afterwards, we heard the sound of the gas van!': Survivor testimony and the writing of history in socialist Yugoslavia, History and Memory 22, no.1, 5–47.
Byford, J. (2007). When I say 'the Holocaust', I mean 'Jasenovac': Remembrance of the Holocaust in contemporary Serbia. East European Jewish Affairs, 37 (1). 51–74.
Byford, J. (2006). 'Serbs never hated the Jews': the denial of antisemitism in contemporary Serbian Orthodox Christian culture, Patterns of Prejudice, 40 (2). 159–180.
Byford, J. (2006). Distinguishing 'Anti-Judaism' From 'Antisemitism': Recent championing of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic, Religion, State and Society, Vol. 34(1), 7–31.
Byford, J.T. (2004). From 'Traitor' to 'Saint': Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic in Public Memory. Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism series (ACTA), No.22, published by The Sassoon International Centre for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
Byford, J.T. (2003). Anti-Semitism and the Christian Right in post-Miloševic Serbia: From conspiracy theory to hate crime. Internet Journal of Criminology (IJC), available online http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/.
Byford, J.T. (2002). Anchoring and objectifying neocortical warfare: re-presentation of a biological metaphor in Serbian conspiracy literature. Papers on Social Representations, 3.1–3.14.
Byford, J.T. & Billig, M. (2001). The emergence of antisemitic conspiracy theories in Yugoslavia during the war with NATO. Patterns of Prejudice, 35(4), 50–63. (also published in Hungarian: Antiszemita összeesküvés-elméletek megjelenése Jugoszláviában a NATO elleni háború idején, Replika (Special issue on Discourse Analysis), 53 (Dec 2005), 55–66.
Byford, J., McAvoy, J. and Banyard, P. (2014). Investigating Intelligence. Milton Keynes: The Open University. (DE100).
Byford, J. (2014). The importance of replication. In N. Brace and J. McAvoy (eds) Investigating Methods. Milton Keynes: The Open University. (DE100).
Brace, N. and Byford, J. (2012). Investigating Psychology: Key Concepts, Key Studies, Key Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press and Milton Keynes: The Open University. (DE100).
Byford, J. (2009). Living together, living apart: The social life of the neighbourhood. In S.Taylor, S.Hinchliffe, J.Clarke and S.Bromley (Eds.) Making Social Lives, The Open University, pp. 245–288. (DD101)
A repository of research publications and other research outputs can be viewed at The Open University's Open Research Online.
Last updated: 10 March 2016