This is an archive of documents on Mozambique not readily available elsewhere, and references to Mozambique articles on other websites.
Last updated: 4 January 2016.
Recent important documents
Separation of party and state: Princípios sobre a despartidarização do Aparelho de Estado
Exchange rates and minimum wages - 1996-2015
After riots in 2010, Mozambique devalued the currency against the South African Rand, to MT 3.5 to 1 Rand in 2012 and MT 3 to 1 Rand since 2013. This benefits Maputo consumers but makes it ever harder for local producers to compete against imports. Minimum wages were increased significantly in April 2014, an election year, and by a smaller amount in 2005. They are now $92 per month for farm workers and $139 in industry. Minimum wage & exchange rate charts and tables 1996-2015.
The 2015 plan and budget proposals as submitted to parliament:
Proposta de Lei do Orçamento do Estado para 2015
Proposta da PES para 2015
Eleições Nacionais 2014 National Elections.
We published frequent bulletins before and after national elections on 15 October 2014, in English
and in Portuguese.
World Bank Mozambique Service Delivery Indicators - Education - March 2015
Chickens and beer: A recipe for agricultural growth in Mozambique
Galinhas e cerveja: uma recita para o cresimento
by Teresa Smart and Joseph Hanlon
In Portuguese, Galinhas e cerveja, from bookshops in Maputo, Ilha de Moçambique, and perhaps elsewhere in Mozambique, or direct from the distributor: Kapicua, Rua Fernão Veloso 12 (cor Av Mao Tse Tung), Maputo. .Capitulo 1 - Introdução
In English, Chickens and Beer:
. E-book for Kindle and iPad, buy for $8.37 from US Amazon - http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00NRZXXKE - £5.14 from UK Amazon.
" In pdf format, 6 Mb file.
, Summary in English
.Tables and charts from Chcikens and Beer and figures que estão faltando na edição impressa do capítulo 6 do Galinhas e cerveja
Budget support (GBS, G-19)
Various May 2014 documents relating to budget support:
Independent Evaluation of Budget Support in Mozambique - Final Report Vol 1 - 2014
Avaliação Independente do Apoio Directo ao Orçamento em Moçambique 2005-2012 (Resumo)
Avaliação Independente do Apoio Directo ao Orçamento em Moçambique 2005-2012
Annual review 2014 - complete set of documents - ZIP file - 16 May 2014
Annual review 2014 - summary presentation - 16 May 2014
2014 pledges (for 2015)
Summary ppt - Compromissos financeiro para o ano de 2015
Commitment tables: general budget support, sectoral, and more detailed
Statements: G-19, government, G-19 head
Coal and gas
Mozambique Political Process Bulletin 53: Mozambique to become one of biggest coal & gas producers
Boletim sobre o processo político em Moçambique 53: Moçambique tenta entrar na lista dos maiores produtores de carvão e gás
Mozambique chapters in Africa Yearbook
Africa Yearbook 2014 - Mozambique
Africa Yearbook 2013 - Mozambique
Africa Yearbook 2011 - Mozambique
Agriculture & land
Gurue soya boom
Thousands of subsistence farmers in Gúruè district are earning small amounts of money from soya. However, about 100 farmers earned more than $1000 profit from soya, and have become small commercial farmers. But land conflicts are increasing.
Gúruè produced nearly 6000 tonnes of soya this year, adding more than $2 million to the local economy. Soya is a "revolution for the population," Gúruè Permanent Secretary Tito Celestino said. And the growth potential for soya is huge.
Soya boom in Gurue updated (Hanlon-Smart Research Report 1; 10 Sept 2012 updated 23 Sept 2013; 258 kb)
O boom da soja no Gurué revisado
Making money farming in Manica
In Manica province there are probably several hundred small and medium commercial farmers (often called "emergent farmers"). This is in sharp contrast to a research visit seven years ago, when there were few small commercial farmers. There are two keys to the growth in the number of emergent farmers. First has been hands-on management and step-by-step progress. Second has been outside support, often linked to contract farming. But no large foreign agricultural investors have succeeded in Manica. Prio Foods, with 24,000 ha and €6 million investment, was the latest to fail, in January 2013 -- following the trail blazed by Sun Biofuels and others. Pouring in money and smart foreign managers has not, so far, been a recipe for success.
Chickens and beer on the road to growth
Compared to seven years ago when we last visited, rural Nampula remains very poor - although there is now some commercial agriculture where there was none before. A growing number of individuals and associations are becoming small commercial farmers. It has taken a decade, but the seeds planted by the more hands-on and practical agencies like Clusa and TechnoServe have produced at least an initial crop. A key motor has been the domestic and foreign private sector with a long time horizon. Mozambican traders are more active and this has produced a market. But satisfying that market requires inputs, ploughing, technology, and credit which is not readily available. The companies making the most impact are those that are willing to invest for 10 or 20 years ahead, who are building businesses for their children and grandchildren, and who are building businesses that depend for their success on Mozambican commercial farmers. Contract farming of soya (for chiken feed) and cassava (for beer) are raising local incomes.
Irrigation - only for the President to see
Irrigation pumps installed in Nante, Zambézia, following the visit of President Armando Guebuza in May 2010, have never been used. He promised pumps would be installed within 45 days, and they were. But motors did not match the pumps, so cannot be used.
Report in English and Portuguese
For the president to see - Nante pumps (English) (74 kb)
Para Presidente Ver - Nante electrobombas - CIP Serviço de Partilha de Informação nº17/2012
World Bank conference paper on land
"Confrontation Between Peasant Producers and Investors in Northern Zambézia, Mozambique, in the Context of Profit Pressures on European Investors" by Simon Norfolk and Joseph Hanlon. Paper presented at the World Bank Annual Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, 23-25 April 2012
Paper in English and Portuguese
Confrontation Between Peasant Producers and Investors (291 kb)
Confrontos entre productores camponeses e investidores (221 kb)
Agriculture: Obana vs Annan models
The G8 and the Africa Progress Panel offer different agricultural development models
Guardian PovertyMatters blog 31 July 2012
Donor agriculture proposals
USAID proposals for G8 agriculture agreement with Mozambique, including the list of companies which might participate, and the World Bank policy matrix. Both documents appear to be the donor proposals to which they government has yet to agree.
USAID G8 Proposta de Cooperação (413 kb)
World Bank draft policy matrix (233 kb)
Pro-Savana is a joint Japanese-Brazilian-Mozambican agricultural development programme for the Nacala corridor based on a similar Japanese-supported programme in the Brazilian cerrado. It is proving controversial. See Mozambique News Reports and Clippings 209 and 210 for more details. We are posting here a range of documents.
The Food Crisis and the Global Land Grab website has extensive material on Pro-Savana, including a leaked draft of the Pro-Savana master plan.
A defence of Pro-Savana by Natalia Fingermann, Os mitos por trás do ProSavana (The myths behind ProSavana, but in Portutuguese only) , has been published by IESE (Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Económicos; Institute of Social and Economic Studies) in Maputo. This has been challenged by Sayaka Funada-Classen in Observador Rural No.12 in English and Portuguese. She has also written Analysis of the Discourse and Background of the ProSAVANA Programme in Mozambique – focusing on Japan’s role in English and in Portuguese as Análise do Discurso e dos Antecedentes do Programa ProSAVANA em Moçambique – enfoque no papel do Japão in which she argues "this programme started as a political, diplomatic, commercial and publicity project, and has not been initiated from the needs of the local inhabitants"
Land Grabbing, Agribusiness and the Peasantry in Brazil and Mozambique - Elizabeth Clements and Bernardo Fernandes (1 Mb)
Estrangeirização da terra, agronegócio e campesinato no Brasil e em Moçambique. Elizabeth Alice Clements e Bernardo Mançano Fernandes
Land Grabbing for Agribusiness in Mozambique: UNAC statement on the ProSavana Programme
Ação do estado e as transformações agrárias no caerrado -Vera Pessoa
A conservação do Cerrado brasileiro - Carlos Klink e Ricardo Machado
A urdidura espacial do capital e do trabalho no cerrado - Marcelo Mendonça
2011 & 2012 municipal by-elections
There were by-elections (eleicoes intercalares) for mayor (presidente) on 7 December 2011 in Cuamba, Pemba and Quelimane, and on 18 April 2012 in Inhambane. These are various related documents:
Observatório Eleitoral - Comunicado preliminar - Cuamba, Pemba, Quelimane
Observatório Eleitoral - Final - Cuamba, Pemba, Quelimane
Observatório Eleitoral - Inhambane
Comissão Nacional de Eleições - Inhambane - 19/2012
Comissão Nacional de Eleições - apuramento - Inhambane
Conselho Constitucional - 4CC2011 - Cuamba, Pemba, Quelimane
Conselho Constitucional - 3/CC/2012 - Inhambane
CODD: How Inhambane voters were informed (very large file 20 Mb)
Full text of approved ethics law
Parliament (Assembleia da República) on 11 May 2012 passed the ethics and conflict of interest law. Originally presented as Lei do Servidor Público (Public Servants Law), it was retitled Lei de Probidade Pública (Public Probity Law). The file is large and is broken into four parts. The text is in Portuguese; there is not yet an English translation.
Lei de Probidade Publica 1 (6 Mb)
Lei de Probidade Publica 2 (8.2 Mb)
Lei de Probidade Publica 3 (8.5 Mb)
Lei de Probidade Publica 4 (6 Mb)
CODD: How were Inhambane voters informed? (very large file: 20 Mb)
Frelimo 10th Congress
The 10th party congress in Pemba 23-28 September 2102. Mainly reports of Political Commission and Central Committee elections. (There was little policy debate.)
Mozambique News Reports & Clippings 202 - 1 October 2012 - full election results (200 kb)
X congresso da Frelimo - O Pais, Radio Moçambique
Frelimo 10th Congress: AIM English reports
Political Commission candidates lists. Continuidade Mulheres and Areas Económicas e Sociais are missing.
Continuidade Homens (815 kb)
Renovação (733 kb)
Combatentes (877 kb)
Jovens (733 kb)
2014 flood reports
After heavy rains, there was serious flooding in southern Mozambique. On Wednesday 23 January the city of Chokwe was totally flooded and flood waters had reached the level of the 2000 flood. Floodwaters hit Xai Xai on Saturday 26 January, but were lower than 2000. The peak passed relatively quickly and the clean-up began in on 29 January.
We will post flood reports as they become available.
Nearly all are in Portuguese.
There is a very detailed daily Boletin Hidrológio National (National Water Bulletin) which gives current water levels compared to other years and flood levels.
There are excellent annotated satellite pictures on the website of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), which are updated regularly.
UNITAR satellite images of flooded areas
AIM summary report on flooding 18 Feb 2013
Briefing Instituto Nacional de Gestão de Calamidades 18 Feb 2013 (7.7 Mb!)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 64 - 18 Feb 2013 (913 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 57 - 11 Feb 2013 (983 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 56 - 10 Feb 2013 (979 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 55 - 9 Feb 2013 (401 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 54 - 8 Feb 2013 (975 kb)
Briefing Instituto Nacional de Gestão de Calamidades 8 Feb 2013 (11 Mb!)
Briefing Instituto Nacional de Gestão de Calamidades 7 Feb 2013 (9.3 Mb!)
Claims by a small South African NGO of misconduct in food distribution, and government response that NGO failed to coordinate
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 48 - 2 Feb 2013 (688 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 47 - 1 Feb 2013 (979 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 46 - 31 Jan 2013 (975 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 44 - 29Jan2013 (971 kb)
Mozambique press reports 24 January 2013 - English & Portuguese
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 38 - 23Jan2013 (668 kb)
Boletim Hidrológico Nacional 37 - 22 Jan 13 (644 kb)
Detailed briefing - CENOE - Centro Operativo de Emergência - 22Jan13 (9.5 Mb)
Emergency declatation - 22Jan13 (94 kb)
The UN's ReliefWeb is posting regular updates on the Mozambique floods.