Atul Chandra Chatterjee


Atul Chandra Chatterjee was an administrator in India and later became High Commissioner in London. He first arrived in Britain in 1893, having won a Government of India scholarship to study at King’s College, Cambridge. He graduated with a Second Class in history in 1895. In 1896 he successfully sat the Indian Civil Service exam. He returned to India in 1897, taking up a post as district administrator in the United Provinces. Chatterjee pursued a successful career in the ICS. By 1921 he had been promoted to Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Industries and in 1923 he joined the Department’s Executive Council.

In 1924, Chatterjee married Galdys Mary Broughton, who advised the Government of India on women’s and child welfare. In 1924, Chatterjee accepted the offer of the post of High Commissioner for India in London, which he held until 1931. He was the driving force behind the building of India House, Aldwych, which houses the Indian High Commission to this day. The building was opened in 1930 by George V. In London, Chatterjee represented the Indian Government at the International Labour Conference as well as the League of Nations. He also represented the Indian Government at the London Naval Conference in 1930.

His experience as an administrator and his diplomatic skills were highly respected and reflected in the honours that were bestowed on him. He was made a KCIE in 1925 and KCSI in 1930. Subsequent to being High Commissioner, Chatterjee sat on the Council of India for five years. In 1942 he became Advisor to the Secretary of State for India, a post he held until 1947.

Chatterjee also took an interest in the arts. He was a member of the council of the Royal Academy of Arts for twenty years and its chairman from 1939 to 1940. He was also a member of the Royal Asiatic Society and Vice-Chairman of the East India Association. He published widely on Indian history. He remained in England after Indian independence and died in Sussex in September 1955.

Published works: 

Notes on the Industries of the United Provinces (Allahabad, 1908)

Moreland, William Harrison and Chatterjee (Sir Atul Chandra), A Short History of India...With 8 Maps (London: Longmans, 1936)

'Recent Social Changes in India', Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 89 (1940-1), pp. 3-14

Burn, Sir Richard and Chatterjee, Atul Chandra, British Contributions to Indian Studies (London: Longmans, 1943)

The New India (Allen & Unwin, 1948)

The Art of Katherine Mansfield: An Enquiry into the Meaning and Technique of the Short Stories of Katherine Mansfield in the Background of the Modern Short Story in England and Elsewhere (New Delhi: S. Chand & Co., 1980) 

Date of birth: 
24 Nov 1874

Richard Burn, Sir Harcourt Butler, Sir Thomas Holland, Sir James Meston, W. H. Moreland, William Rothenstein, Ranjit Singh, Edward J. ThompsonSwami Vivekananda, Francis Younghusband.


J. Coatman, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs) 21, 1945, p. 422 (A Short History of India

Far Eastern Survey 18, 1949, p. 215

Kisch, Cecil, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs) 25, 1949, p. 235 (The New India)

Vera Anstey, The Economic Journal 59, 1949, pp. 107-8 (The New India)

Holden Furber, Pacific Affairs 23, 1950, pp. 108-9 (The New India

Haward, Edwin, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs) 29, 1953, p. 528 (A Short History of India)

Lewis, B. Clingman, The Catholic Historical Review 44, 1958, pp. 347-9 (A Short History of India)

Secondary works: 

'The Banquet for Ranjit Sinjhi', Indian Mirror, 16 December 1896

Burke, J., A General [later edns A Genealogical] and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom [later edns The British Empire] [1829-] (1939)

Drake, J. C. B., 'Chatterjee, Sir Atul Chandra (1874–1955)', rev. K. D. Reynolds, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004) []

Editorial, 'The Mazlis in Cambridge', in Vivekananda in Indian Newspapers, 1893-1902: Extracts from Twenty-Two Newspapers and Periodicals, ed. by Sankari Prasad Basy and Sunil Bihari Ghosh (Calcutta: Basu Bhattacharyya & Co., 1969), pp. 310-1.

Kaiwar, Vasant and Mazumdar, Sucheta, Antinomies of Modernity: Essays on Race, Orient, Nation (Durham, NC, and London: Duke University Press, 2003)

Sharma, Ram Avtar and Chandra, Ankush, Makers of Indian History, 2 vols (New Delhi: Shree, 2005)

The Times (9 September 1955)

Venn, J. and Venn, J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates, and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times to 1900, 2 pts in 10 vols (1922-54); reprinted in 2 vols (1974-8)

Who Was Who (1920-)

Withers, John J., A Register of Admissions to King's College Cambridge 1797-1925, 2nd edn (John Murray, 1929)

Archive source: 

OB/1/332/C, 1896-1909, Atul Chandra Chatterjee - Oscar Browning correspondence, King's College Library, University of Cambridge

MSS EUR F 147/84, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Sir Atul Chandra Chatterjee


24 Motcombe Court
Bexhill, TN39 4DL
United Kingdom
50° 50' 22.3728" N, 0° 27' 16.1028" E
Date of death: 
08 Sep 1955
Location of death: 
24 Motcombe Court, Bexhill, Sussex
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1893
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1893-7, 1924-55

Jamini Roy


Jamini Roy was a prolific painter of the twentieth century. His work is widely collected both in India and abroad. At the age of 16, he was sent to the Government Art School in Calcutta, receiving his Diploma in 1908. He was later to reject his formal, academic training as well as the style of the Bengali 'revivalist' movement and one of his teachers, Abanindranath Tagore. Instead, he took inspiration from indigenous Indian art, often described as 'folk' art. He was particularly drawn to Kalighat art and the Santhal people, often depicting Santhal dancers and drummers in his characteristic 'flat' style using a restricted palette of earthy colours. He experimented with techniques and materials, such as tempera, card, rush-matting and natural pigments. His obituary in The Times noted: ‘His studio was a place of pilgrimage for all interested in the artistic heritage of Bengal and in his own delightful person he typified a generation and a culture' (15/05/72).

The poet and editor M. J. Tambimuttu became interested in Roy's work in the mid-1940s. In correspondence, he expressed an interest in commissioning a monograph on Roy for his Editions Poetry London list, as well as in arranging an exhibition of his work in England (correspondence with Kurt Larisch, Tambimuttu archive, British Library). Roy's work was exhibited in London in 1947 (Burlington House) and in New York in 1953. He was awarded the Padma Bushan by the Indian Government in 1955. Roy was supported, collected and written about by William Archer, the Keeper of the Indian Section at the Victoria and Albert Museum, and also by Archer’s successor, John Conran Irwin. Irwin collaborated with the progressive poet Bishnu Dey to write the first biography of Roy. Irwin was also the executive secretary of the important exhibition at Burlington House, ‘The Arts of India and Pakistan’, in the winter of 1947-8, in which Roy’s work was included. William Archer made Roy’s work central to his book India and Modern Art (1959).

Date of birth: 
01 Jan 1887

William Archer, E. M. Forster (visited an exhibition of Roy's work), John Conran Irwin, Abanindranath Tagore, M. J. Tambimuttu.

Burlington House, Victoria and Albert Museum.

Precise DOB unknown: 
Secondary works: 

Archer, William, India and Modern Art (London: Allen & Unwin, 1959)

Dey, Bishnu and Irwin, John, Jamini Roy (Calcutta: Indian Society of Oriental Art, 1944)

Jamini Roy (New Delhi: Lala Kali Akademi, 1973)

Milford, Mary E., 'A Modern Primitive', Horizon 10.59 (November 1944), pp. 338-42

Paintings of Jamini Roy, words by Sipra Chakravarty (Calcutta: Indian Museum, 1991)

Archive source: 

Jamini Roy material collected by William Archer, Mss Eur F236, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

City of birth: 
Chhandar, Bengal
Country of birth: 
Date of death: 
01 Jan 1972
Precise date of death unknown: 
Location of death: 
Kolkata, India
Tags for Making Britain: 

Uday Shankar


Uday Shankar was an artist, dancer and choreographer who popularized Indian dance through his effective use of western theatrical techniques in combination with classical Indian dance. Uday Shankar arrived in London in 1920 to study art at Royal College of Art under the tutelage of William Rothenstein. While in London, William Rothenstein sent him to the British Museum to study the reproductions of paintings from the caves of Ajanta and Ellora. The Russian ballerina Ana Pavlova convinced Shankar to turn to dance, winning a fiercly fought battle with Rothenstein over the future artistic direction of Shankar. His performances with Pavlova, partnering her in the ‘Radha Krishna’ ballet and ‘Hindu wedding’ in her programme titled ‘Oriental Impressions’, caused a sensation when first performed at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in September 1923 and they toured extensively through Europe and the US. Uday Shankar returned to London in 1923 and struggled to make a living by trying to find engagements in London cabaret clubs. In 1925 he moved to Paris, where he had more success. In 1926 he was joined by the French dancer Simkie, whom he taught classical Indian dance and who joined him on subsequent tours of Europe.

Shankar returned to India in 1927 and toured all major cultural centres in India to fire his imagination. At that time he also met Rabindranath Tagore. In 1930 he formed a new troupe of dancers and with a new programme returned to Paris in 1931 and subsequently toured with the programme to London and other major European cities. These performances in the early 1930s had a huge impact on art lovers in particular and led to a rediscovery of the cultural heritage of India. Shankar returned to India in 1935 and then toured Europe from 1936-8 with a new troupe, which included the dancers Shanti Bardhan, Simkie, Zohra Sehgal, and Uzra, once again taking all the big European cities by storm. During this time the troupe perfomed a charity performance at the Hindustani Social Club in London. In 1939 Shankar established the ‘Uday Shankar India Culture Centre’ at Almora, India, which continued until 1943 – it  had to be closed down because of the impact of the Second World War and financial difficulties. From 1943-7 Shankar worked on the dance film ‘Kalpana’, which was widely acclaimed and which he personally presented in Europe, the USSR and the USA in 1948. He went on a two-year tour of Europe and the US in 1949/1950 to raise funds for a new dance school in Calcutta. He died in Calcutta in 1977.

Published works: 

S. Hurok presents Uday Shan-Kar and His Hindu Ballet (New York City: Nicolas Pub. Co., 1938)


Review in The Truth (14 July 1937)

Date of birth: 
08 Dec 1900

Daily Herald (8 March 1937)

Daily Herald (10 March 1937)

The Daily Telegraph (10 March 1937)

Evening Standard (10 March 1937)

The Times (10 March 1937)

Evening News (10 March 1937)

Morning Post (10 March 1937)

Daily Mirror (12 March 1937)

The Observer (14 March 1937)

Sunday Times (14 March 1937)

Sketch  (30 June 1937) 

World Film News (July 1937)

The Times (28 Jun 1937)

Evening Standard (2 July 1937)

The Daily Telegraph (6 July 1937) 

Evening News (6 July 1937)

The Star (6 July 1937)

The Times (6 July 1937)

The Stage (8 July 1937) 

New Statesman and Nation (10 July 1937) 

The Observer (11 July 1937)

The Times (13 July 1937)


Tradition and Nationalism:

Their art, therefore though it is founded upon the traditional themes, is much more than merely a revival of traditions. It is a development of them as well, and herein lies their importance not so much for us in West as for Indians. These dancers and musicians may be regarded as one of the manifestations of that rising spirit of Indian nationalism which the British Government has lately recognised in the Government of India Act. It is pleasant, therefore, to see that so very Western an institution as Dartington Hall is supporting them in their ambition to found a Dance and Music Centre at Benares the function of which will be to acquaint the people of India with an inheritance they have so nearly lost and to foster development in these arts.

Secondary works: 

Banerji, Projesh, Dance of India (Allahabad : Kitabistan, 1942)

Banerji, Projesh, Uday Shankar and his Art (Delhi: B. R. Publications, 1982)

Ghosh, Dibyendu (ed.), The great Shankars: Uday, Ravi (Calcutta : Agee Prakashani, 1983)

Khokar, Mohan, His Dance, his life: a Portrait of Uday Shankar (New Delhi: Himalayan Books, 1983)


The extract offers an interesting observation on Shankar's art and places it firmly into a context of Indian nationalism, which adds a different dimension to  the nature of his performances. These comments are unusual as they establish a political context for Shankar's performances, rather than discussing the exoticism of his ballet which other reviewers tend to overemphasize.

Archive source: 

Uday Shankar Performance Scrapbooks, Nehru Memorial Library and Museum, New Delhi

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Date of death: 
26 Sep 1977
Location of death: 
Calcutta, India
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
23 Aug 1920
Dates of time spent in Britain: 




Ayana Deva Angadi


Ayana Angadi came to Britain in 1924. His original intention was to prepare for the ICS examination but instead he became involved in political activism, writing, and lecturing about imperialism and India. As well as contributing to a range of journals in Britain, he wrote several political pamphlets under the pseudonym Raj Hansa. A committed Trotskyist, he joined the Labour Party and worked as a lecturer for the Central Advisory Council for Adult Education in HM Forces and then for the Imperial Institute, travelling to schools and colleges around the country to speak about Indian matters. He also travelled to Scandinavia to lecture and was there suspected of being a Cominform agent (L/PJ/12/518, p. 48).

Arguably, Angadi's most significant achievement while in Britain was the establishment with his wife Patricia Fell-Clarke of the Asian Music Circle in 1946. This organization introduced Indian music, dance and yoga to the British public, paving the way for musicians such as Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan.

Published works: 

(as Jaya Deva) Japan’s Kampf (London: Gollancz, 1942)

Numerous pamphlets written under the name Raj Hansa


'Secret’ IPI memo, 1 February 1949, L/PJ/12/518, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras, pp. 42–3

Date of birth: 
12 Mar 1903

This file contains British government surveillance reports on Ayana Angadi’s activities in Britain and Europe during the period 1937–47.


E. F. Bramley (CPGB), R. F. O. Bridgeman, Benjamin Brittan, J. R. Campbell (CPGB), Patricia Fell-Clarke, George Harrison, B. K. S. Iyengar, Krishna Menon, Yehudi Menuhin, Shapurji Saklatvala, Ravi Shankar.

Contributions to periodicals: 

New Leader


Time and Tide


AYANA VEERAYASWAMI ANGADI has lived mainly in the United Kingdom since 1930. He is an individual of ordinary status who has made a livelihood as a lecturer and journalist. His book 'Japan’s Kampf' attracted the favourable attention of the Ministry of Information during the war and for a time he was engaged as a lecturer to troops. However he was relieved of this occupation because he introduced his political views into the lectures.

ANGADI is described as being a revolutionary Communist. His record includes a sentence in 1937 of a month’s imprisonment for stealing a typewriter.

Since 1946 ANGADI has toured and lectured in the Scandinavian countries more than once and many of his lectures have been marked by a strong anti-British bias. He has made himself unpopular both in Norway and Denmark and the former has decided to refuse him a visa should he apply for one again.

It has been stated that his visit to Norway in February 1947 was under the auspices of the Imperial Institute, and has been suggested that the Institute should be told about his undesirability. You may be able to find out if it is correct that the Institute sponsored ANGADI in any way, and may be able to tell someone in the Institute about the kind of individual he is.

Secondary works: 

Massey, Reginald, Azaadi! Stories and Histories of the Indian Subcontinent After Independence (Abhinav Publications, 2005)

Visram, Rozina, Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History (London: Pluto, 2002)


The detailed documentation kept on Angadi and his activities while in Britain is evidence of the high level of surveillance of South Asians who were politically active during this period. This in turn suggests the anti-imperialist campaigning of Angadi and his contemporaries was considered dangerously effective. The extensive travel Angadi undertook, both within Britain and beyond, is evidence of a keen commitment to educating the British and Europeans about imperialism and to mobilizing for the struggle for Indian independence and international socialism.

Archive source: 

L/PJ/12/518, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Asian Music Circle 1954–1960: Correspondence with Ayana Deva Angadi, founder and director, regarding the Circle’s programmes, with copies of leaflets and programmes, MSS 157/3/MU/A/1/1–26, Papers of Victor Gollancz, Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick Library

Involved in events: 

Numerous concerts and lectures

India League meetings

City of birth: 
Jakanur, Mysore State
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Ayana Veerayyaswami Angadi

Raj Hansa

Jaya Deva


Date of death: 
01 Oct 1993
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1924
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 


Ajit Mookerjee


Ajit Mookerjee was a contributor to a number of magazines, including Life and Letters Today and Horizon. He published prolifically on art. He was also a friend of E. M. Forster and C. L. R. James.



Tags for Making Britain: 

Nikhil Sen


Nikhil Sen was a friend of Mulk Raj Anand and moved in the same circles in London in the 1920s. Little is known about Sen; however, Anand mentions him extensively in Conversations in Bloomsbury (1981).

It appears that Sen was already in London when Anand arrived in 1925. Like Anand, Sen was a student at University College, London. He was also a poet and an art lover. According to Anand, Sen studied in the British Museum Reading Rooms and the two often lunched together in University College lower refectory, the Museum Tavern or at Poggiolis in Charlotte Street. Sen's girlfriend was Edna Thompson, who was a student of literature; other fellow students included Mr. Topa and Parkash Pandit. Sen apparently worked at Arthur Probsthain’s Oriental Bookshop in Russell Street, and found work for Anand in Jacob Schwartz’s Ulysses Bookshop.  

Furthermore, Sen already knew several members of the 'Bloomsbury Group' when Anand arrived in Britain. Indeed, it was Sen who introduced Anand to Bonamy Dobree, Gwenda Zeidmann, Jacob Schwartz, Harold Monro, Edith Sitwell, Laurence Binyon and Leonard Woolf. Together they met T. S. Eliot, Aldous Huxley and D. H. Lawrence, and they would go to the British Museum with Laurence Binyon. Like Anand, Sen was frustrated by the orientalist views of some members of the Bloomsbury Group and would often argue with Eliot and Lawrence.


Mulk Raj Anand (fellow student), Laurence Binyon, Bonamy Dobree, T. S. Eliot, Aldous Huxley, C. E. M. Joad (Assistant Professor, Birkbeck College), D. H. Lawrence, Harold Monro, Parkash Pandit (fellow student), Jacob Schwartz (Probsthain’s Oriental Bookshop), Edith Sitwell, Edna Thompson (girlfriend and fellow student), Mr. Topa (fellow student), Leonard Woolf, Gwenda Zeidmann.

Secondary works: 

Mulk Raj Anand, Conversations in Bloomsbury (London: Wildwood House, 1981)


Arthur Probsthain's Bookshop
41 Great Russell Street
London, WC1B 3PE
United Kingdom
51° 31' 4.6776" N, 0° 7' 36.6672" W
Tags for Making Britain: 

India House (Offices of the Indian Embassy)


The India House in Aldwych was set up as a building for the offices of the Indian High Commissioner and Embassy and should not be confused with the hostel in Highgate. The building was conceived by Sir Atul Chatterjee, the first High Commissioner for India in London, and Herbert Baker. It was designed by Herbert Baker and Gilbert Scott. The building was completed in 1930 and opened by King George V with a solid gold key.

Chatterjee decided to set up a scholarship scheme to decorate the new India House and with the help of William Rothenstein, four Indian art students (chosen by competition) arrived in September 1929. Samuel Fyzee-Rahamin applied to be involved in the painting, but was rejected because he was too ‘senior’. The Indian artists commenced work at India House in April 1931. The artists were unable to complete the work, having only painted the dome when Atul Chatterjee was replaced by Sir Bhupendranath Mitra and financial constraints intervened.

Upon independence in 1947, the building was transferred to the Indian Government. The first High Commissioner to preside in it was V. K. Krishna Menon. The building is still used by the Indian High Commission today.

Published works: 

See Deb Barman, D. K., ‘Londone India Houser Deyal Chitra’, Prabasi 31. 7 (Kartik, 1339) (in Bengali)

Baker, Herbert, Architecture and Personalities (London, 1944)

Secondary works: 

Mitter, Partha, The Triumph of Modernism: India’s Artists and the Avant-Garde 1922-1947 (London: Reaktion Books, 2007)

Date began: 
01 Jan 1928
Precise date began unknown: 

Laurence Binyon, E. Michael Dinkel, Samuel Fyzee-Rahamin, Abanindranath Tagore, Francis Younghusband.

The four artists were Dhirendra Krishna Deb Barman, Sudhansu Sekhar Chaudhury, Ranada Uki and Lalit Mohan Sen.

Archive source: 

MS Eng 1148.1, Rothenstein Archive, Houghton Library, Harvard University

Mss Eur F147/74, India Society Archive, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras


United Kingdom
Involved in events details: 

Exhibition of Modern Art at Burlington Galleries, 1934

Tags for Making Britain: 

Meary James Tambimuttu


A Sri Lankan Tamil from an affluent English-speaking Roman Catholic family, M. J. Tambimuttu arrived in Britain at the age of 22. Having already published three volumes of poetry in Ceylon, he soon immersed himself in the literary world of London’s Soho and Fitzrovia. Within little more than a year of his arrival he had founded the magazine Poetry London (1939–51) with the writer and musician Anthony Dickins. While Dickins' involvement quickly diminished, Tambimuttu edited the first fourteen volumes of the magazine and a number of books, as well as writing his own poetry. In July 1943, with the backing of publishers Nicholson and Watson (on the recommendation of T. S. Eliot who was an admirer of his), he established Editions Poetry London, which published contemporary verse and prose, as well as art books, in hard cover. Tambimuttu was also a regular participant in the BBC radio series Talking to India during the Second World War. A man of charisma as well as a talented editor, he had an array of friends and acquaintances with whom he enjoyed the pubs and cafes of Fitzrovia.

Tambimuttu returned to Sri Lanka in 1949 then moved to New York in 1952 where he launched the magazine Poetry London–New York (1956–60) as well as continuing to publish short fiction and poetry of his own, and lecturing at the Poetry Center and New York University. In 1968 he returned to London where he founded a final magazine, Poetry London/Apple Magazine, which had just two issues, and a publishing company, the Lyrebird Press. He died of heart failure in London in 1983.

Published works: 

Songs of Youth (1932)

Tone Patterns (Colombo: Slave Island Printing Works, 1936)

Out of this War (London: The Fortune Press, 1941)

(ed.) Poetry in Wartime (London: Faber, 1942)

Natarajah: A Poem for Mr T. S. Eliot (London: Editions Poetry London, 1948)

(ed.) India Love Poems (New York: Peter Pauper Press, 1954)

(ed.) Poems from Bangla Desh: The Voice of a New Nation (London: The Lyrebird Press, 1972)

See also editions of Poetry London and Williams (below) for work by Tambimuttu.


Tambimuttu, M. J., ‘Fitzrovia’, Harpers & Queen (February 1975), pp. 223, 225, 229–30, 232

Date of birth: 
15 Aug 1915

Tambimuttu recounts his arrival in London in 1938, and immersion in the bohemian literary world of ‘Fitzrovia’ and Soho.


Ahmed Ali, Mulk Raj Anand, W. H. Auden, George Barker, Z. A. Bokhari, Hsiao Ch'ienVenu Chitale, Alex Comfort, Ananda Coomaraswamy (his uncle), Walter de la Mare, G. V. Desani, Indira Devi, Anthony Dickins, Keith Douglas, Cedric Dover, Lawrence Durrell, T. S. Eliot, William Empson, Gavin Ewart, E. M. Forster, G. S. Fraser, Lucian Freud, Diana Gardner, David Gascoyne, Michael Hamburger, Barbara Hepworth, Augustus John, Fredoon Kabraji, Alun Lewis, Wyndham Lewis, Louis MacNeice, Richard March, Una Marson, Narayana Menon, Henry Miller, Henry Moore, Anais Nin, George Orwell, Mervyn Peake, Paul Potts, Kathleen Raine, Balachandra Rajan, Herbert Read, Keidrych Rhys, Francis Scarfe, Elizabeth Smart, Edith Sitwell, Stevie Smith, Stephen Spender, Marie Stopes, Alagu Subramaniam, Graham Sutherland, Dylan Thomas.

Contributions to periodicals: 

On the third day after my arrival in London in January 1938…I had already discovered Fitzrovia, and settled down at 45 Howland Street, maybe in the same house where Verlaine and Rimbaud had once conducted their stormy love affair…


The first friendships in a new environment have a special quality and meaning and it was at Peter’s party that I first ran across Anthony Dickins, Gavin Ewart, Stephen Spender and Laurence Clark, whose poems I have consistently printed in Poetry London although he was too J. C. Squire-ish and Georgian for most editors...


By the end of February 1939, when the first number of Poetry London had been in the bookstalls for a month, with the special souvenir cover drawn by Hector Whistler, nephew of James McNeill Whistler, who came to our chiefly Sibelius musicals at 3 or 4 a.m. in the morning with a steaming pot of hot coffee in his hand…our humble dwelling in Whitfield Street had been visited by many celebrities of today. We had a pre-publication visit from Larry Durrell and his brother Gerald…


And thus it was that I became a true Fitzrovian like my friends Augustus John, Roy Campbell, Gavin Maxwell, Elizabeth Smart and Kathleen Raine, all of whom used to visit Fitzrovia with me. But I had it in my soul a very long time ago.

Secondary works: 

Beckett, Chris, ‘Tambimuttu and the Poetry London Papers at the British Library: Reputation and Evidence’, Electronic British Library Journal (2009):

Maclaren-Ross, J., Memoirs of the Forties (London: Alan Ross Ltd, 1965)

Poologasingham, P., Poet Tambimuttu: A Profile (Colombo: P. Tambimuttu, 1993)

Ranasinha, Ruvani, South Asian Writers in Twentieth-Century Britain: Culture in Translation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Williams, Jane (ed.), Tambimuttu: Bridge Between Two Worlds (London: Peter Owen, 1989)


Tambimuttu’s descriptions of meetings and friendships with a range of well known literary figures, such as Gavin Ewart, Stephen Spender, Anais Nin and William Empson, highlight the extent of his immersion in London’s literary life and suggest an acceptance of him on the part of his British friends and associates – and perhaps also a willingness to adapt to a different culture on the part of Tambimuttu. Passing, indirect allusions to his racial difference or ‘foreignness’ are either humorous or, when he retrospectively describes himself as ‘the pioneer’ of the ‘eternal migration and intermingling of cultures’ (perhaps with some exaggeration), almost boastful; and, rather than a sense of cultural dislocation on migration, there is reference to the continuity of his life in ‘bohemian’ London with his early years in Ceylon.

Archive source: 

Meary James Tambimuttu Mss, Add. MS 88907, British Library, St Pancras

Keith Douglas Mss, Add. Mss 53773-53776, 56355-56360, 60585-60586, 61938-61939, British Library, St Pancras

Richard March Mss, Add.  MS 88908, British Library, St Pancras

Reginald Moore Mss, British Library, St Pancras

Northwestern University, Chicago

Poetry London-New York records, Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New York

Contributors' Talks File 1 (1941-62), BBC Written Archives Centre, Caversham Park, Reading 

City of birth: 
Atchuvely, Jaffna Peninsula
Country of birth: 
Current name country of birth: 
Sri Lanka
Other names: 

Thurairajah Tambimuttu



45 Howland Street
London, W1T 4BL
United Kingdom
51° 31' 17.4756" N, 0° 8' 15.0792" W
Date of death: 
22 Jun 1983
Location of death: 
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Jan 1938
Precise 1st arrival date unknown: 
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1938–49, 1968–83

Laurence Binyon


Laurence Binyon was a poet, critic, artist, dramatist and curator. He worked in the British Museum from 1892 till his retirement in 1933 and was instrumental in promoting Asian Art in the Museum. He was introduced to Indian literature and philosophy by the poet Manmohan Ghose. They met as schoolboys at St Paul's School, in a seventh form English class when Ghose quoted Othello in class. They became fast friends, bonding over their love for poety and Classics and admiration of Matthew Arnold. Binyon followed Ghose to Oxford in 1888 (Ghose had joined in 1887) and they were involved in producing a short selection of poems under the title of Primavera in 1890, which was among others, reviewed favourably by Oscar Wilde in the Pall Mall Gazette.

In 1910, Binyon became involved with the India Society in London, designed to promote Indian Fine Art. Binyon became friends with the art-historian Ananda Coomaraswamy, who introduced him to Rajput paintings. In June 1912, Binyon met Rabindranath Tagore at William Rothenstein's house and held an admiration for Tagore that lasted until his death. Binyon had been introduced to the work of Tagore by Manmohan Ghose who had returned to India in 1894 but maintained a correspondence for some years - providing inspiration for Binyon's poem 'Asoka' or 'The Indian Prince' in 1900. When Ghose died in 1924, his daughter, Lotika, came to England to meet Binyon and show him her father's manuscripts. This inspired Binyon to write an introductory memoir for an edition of Ghose's poems that was published in 1926 under the title Songs of Love and Death.

Shortly before the Armistice, in November 1918, Binyon met Kedar Nath Das Gupta in London. Das Gupta, a friend of Tagore's, was organizer of the Union of the East and West. He had prepared a rough translation of Sakuntala, which he wished to put on the stage; Binyon agreed to rewrite Kalidasa's play for the stage, and two performances were put on in November 1919, produced by Lewis Casson and starring Sybil Thorndike. In 1920, Binyon gave the inaugural address for the Indian Students' Union and Hostel opened in Gower Street. Another connection to India was realized through Binyon's introduction to the Indian artist, Mukul Dey's My Pilgrimages to Ajanta and Bagh (London: Thornton & Butterworth, 1925). Binyon did not manage to visit India in his lifetime, despite the desires he expressed to the Oxford Majlis society in 1929. Upon his death in 1943, the Oxford Majlis passed a resolution in honour of Binyon as a 'lifelong friend' of India.

Published works: 

(with Stephen Phillips, Manmohan Ghose and Arthur Cripps) Primavera: Poems by Four Authors (Oxford: Blackwells, 1890)

(with Kedar Nath Das Gupta) Sakuntala (London: Macmillan & Co., 1920)

See Manmohan Ghose, Collected Poems. Volume I: Early Poems and Letters, edited by Lotika Ghose (University of Calcutta, 1970) for an introductory memoir by Laurence Binyon and a pencil sketch of Ghose aged 23 by Binyon



From Introductory Memoir to Manmohan Ghose, Collected Poems. Volume 1 (1970), pp. xv-xvi.

Date of birth: 
10 Aug 1869

Laurence Binyon remembering Manmohan Ghose.


Atul ChatterjeeHarindranath Chattopadhyaya, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Arthur Cripps (poet-missionary, contributor to Primavera), Kedar Nath Das Gupta, Mukul Dey, Manmohan Ghose, John Masefield, Henry Newbolt, Stephen Phillips (cousin, contributer to Primavera), Ezra PoundWilliam RothensteinRabindranath Tagore, Oscar Wilde, William Butler Yeats.

Contributions to periodicals: 

Indian Art and Letters

Monthly Review

Saturday Review


Circumstances had prevented him from being like Rabindra Nath Tagore, an interpreter of the West to India. He admired the Bengali language, but it seemed to him lacking in a certain quality which he found in English. No Indian had ever before used our tongue with so poetic a touch, and he would coin a phrase, turn a noun into a verb with the freedom, often the felicity of our own poets. But he remains Indian. I do not think that an Indian reader would feel him as a foreign poet, for all his western tastes and allusions. Yet to use he is a voice among the great company of English singers; somewhat apart and solitary, with a difference in his note, but not an echo.

Secondary works: 

Hatcher, John, Laurence Binyon: Poet, Scholar of East and West (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995)

Gandhi, Leela, Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought and the Politics of Friendship (New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2006)


The friendship between Laurence Binyon and Manmohan Ghose that began at St Paul's School, was a huge influence on both individuals. Ghose introduced Indian thought and philosophy to Binyon. Laurence Binyon was interested in the 'nationality' of Ghose's verse. Binyon believed that Ghose's English verse suffered when he returned to India as he no longer had the 'nourishment' of English surroundings, but also that Ghose was an Indian poet at heart despite his Western upbringing.

Archive source: 

Letters to Binyon (including one from Harindranath Chattopadhyaya, and letters from Manmohan Ghose), and a few letters from Laurence Binyon to various correspondents and other unpublished manuscripts, Loan Collection 103, Manuscript Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Letters from Binyon to William Rothenstein, Mss Eur B213, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Involved in events: 

Performances of 'Sakuntala', Winter Garden Theatre, November 1919.

Inauguration of Indian Students' Union and Hostel, Gower Street, 1920.


City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Other names: 

Robert Laurence Binyon

Date of death: 
10 Mar 1943
Location of death: 
Reading, England

Mulk Raj Anand


Mulk Raj Anand was a distinguished writer, critic, editor, journalist and political activist. Born into the Kshatriya (warrior) caste in the Punjabi city of Peshawar, he was educated at cantonment schools before completing a degree at the University of Punjab, Amritsar, where his involvement in the 1921 Civil Disobedience campaign against the British resulted in a short period of imprisonment. He was just nineteen years old when he left India for England on a scholarship to mark the silver wedding of George V and Queen Mary. On his arrival he registered at University College London to study for a doctorate in philosophy which he was awarded in 1929.

In England, Anand quickly became involved in left wing politics as well as the Indian independence movement. He was vocal in his support of the coal miners’ strike in 1926 and of the General Strike that followed, and soon afterwards joined a Marxist study circle at the home of the trade unionist Alan Hutt. In the 1930s and 1940s, he spoke regularly at meetings of Krishna Menon’s India League, where he came into contact with a number of British intellectuals and activists including Bertrand Russell, H. N. Brailsford and Michael Foot, and in 1937 he left Britain for three months to join the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War. Drawing also on his talents as a writer in the struggle for socialism, Anand wrote numerous essays on Marxism, Fascism, the Spanish Civil War, Indian independence and other political movements, events and issues of the day. He turned down the offer of a post at Cambridge University. Instead, he lectured in literature and philosophy at the London County Council Adult Educational Schools and the Workers' Educational Association, from 1939 to 1942. Anand’s belief in an international socialism, evident in the range of his political activities, was matched by his conviction of the inextricability of politics and literature. This is reflected in many of his novels which depict the lives of the poorest members of Indian society. The first of these, Untouchable, was published by the left-leaning British firm Wishart in 1935. It can also be seen in his role in the founding of the Progressive Writers’ Association in London in 1935, along with fellow Indian writers Sajjad Zaheer and Ahmed Ali.

Anand immersed himself in London’s literary scene in the inter-war years, associating and in some cases forming friendships with eminent British writers including George Orwell, T. S. Eliot, Stephen Spender and Bonamy Dobree. He was a regular reviewer for a range of national newspapers and magazines, including the New Statesman and Life and Letters Today. He also worked as an editor for Leonard and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, and for T. S. Eliot at Criterion. It was at Criterion where Anand met E. M. Forster whose endorsement of his first novel helped to secure the publishing deal with Wishart – and so his establishment as a novelist. Prior to this, he had already seen success as an art and literary critic, publishing his first book, on Persian painting, in 1930. Untouchable was followed by a string of novels which were, on the whole, reviewed favourably, as well as several essay collections on subjects ranging from art to cookery to India’s struggle for freedom. During the Second World War, Anand researched, scripted and broadcast numerous radio programmes for the BBC Eastern Service, working alongside George Orwell and the Caribbean poet Una Marson, in particular. In 1938, he married the Communist and would-be actor Kathleen Van Gelder, with whom he had a daughter, Rajani. The marriage did not last.

Soon after his return to India in 1945, Anand founded the art magazine Marg. He taught at various universities, including the University of the Punjab where he was appointed Tagore Professor of Literature and Fine Art. From 1965 to 1970, he was fine art chairman at Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Arts). He continued to write fiction and criticism, and to support a range of national and international cultural associations such as the World Peace Council, the Afro-Asian Writers’ Association, the National Book Trust, and the UNESCO Dialogues of East and West. He died in Pune on 28 September 2004.

Published works: 

Persian Painting (London: Faber & Faber, 1930)

Curries and Other Indian Dishes (London: Desmond Harmsworth, 1932)

The Golden Breath: Studies in Five Poets of the New India (London: John Murray, 1933)

The Hindu View of Art (London: Allen & Unwin, 1933)

The Lost Child and Other Stories (London: J. A. Allen & Co., 1934)

The Untouchable (London: Wishart, 1935)

Coolie (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1936)

Two Leaves and a Bud (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1937)

Marx and Engels on India (1937)

The Village (London: Cape, 1939)

Across the Black Waters (London: Cape, 1940)

Letters on India (London: Labour Book Service, 1942)

The Sword and the Sickle (London: Cape, 1942)

The Barber's Trade Union, and Other Stories (London: Cape, 1944)

Big Heart. A Novel (London: Hutchinson, 1945)

Apology for Heroism: An Essay in Search of Faith (London: Lindsay Drummond, 1946)

Indian Fairy Tales (Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1946)

On Education (Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1947)

The Tractor and the Corn Goddess, and Other Stories (Bombay: Thacker & Co., 1947)

The King-Emperor's English; or, The Role of the English Language in the Free India (Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1948)

Lines Written to an Indian Air. Essays (Bombay: Nalanda Publications, 1949)

Seven Summers: The Story of an Indian Childhood (London: Hutchinson, 1951)

The Story of Man (Amritsar and New Delhi: Sikh Publishing House, 1952)

Private Life of an Indian Prince (London: Hutchinson, 1953)

Reflections on the Golden Bed, and Other Stories (Bombay: Current Book House, 1954)

The Dancing Foot (Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, 1957)

The Power of Darkness and Other Stories (Bombay: Jaico Publishing House, 1959)

The Old Woman and the Cow (Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1960)

More Indian Fairy Tales (Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1961)

The Road: A Novel (Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1961)

Death of a Hero: Epitaph for Maqbool Sherwani: A Novel (Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1963)

Is There a Contemporary Indian Civilisation? (London and Madras: Asia Publishing House, 1963)

Kama Kala: Some Notes on the Philosophical Basis of Hindu Erotic Sculpture (Geneva: Nagel Publishers, [1958] 1963)

The Story of Chacha Nehru (Delhi: Rajpal & Sons, 1965)

Lajwanti and Other Stories (Bombay: Jaico Publishing House, 1966)

The Humanism of M. K. Gandhi: Three Lectures (Chandigarh: University of Punjab, 1967)

Morning Face. A Novel (Bombay: Kutub Popular, 1968)

Roots and Flowers: Two Lectures on the Metamorphosis of Technique and Content in the Indian-English Novel (Dharwar: Karnatak University, 1972)

Author to Critic: The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand, ed., introduction and notes by Saros Cowasjee (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1973)

Between Tears and Laughter (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973)

Folk Tales of Punjab (New Delhi: Sterling, 1974)

Confessions of a Lover (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1976)

Gauri (New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1976)

The Humanism of Jawaharlal Nehru (Calcutta: Visva-Bharati, 1978)

The Humanism of Rabindranath Tagore: Three Lectures (Aurangabad Murathwada University, 1978)

Conversations in Bloomsbury (London: Wildwood House, 1981)

The Bubble (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1984)

Critical Essays on Indian Writing in English (Bombay: Macmillan, 1972)

The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand, ed. and with an introduction by Saros Cowasjee (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1974)

Selected Short Stories of Mulk Raj Anand, ed. and with an introduction by M. K. Naik (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1977)

Autobiography (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1985-)

Poet-Painter: Paintings by Rabindranath Tagore (New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985)

Pilpali Sahab: The Story of a Big Ego in a Small Boy (London: Aspect, 1990)

Caliban and Gandhi: Letters to "Bapu" from Bombay (New Delhi: Arnold, 1991)

Old Myth and New Myth: Letters from Mulk Raj Anand to K. V. S. Murti (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1991)

Anand to Alma: Letters of Mulk Raj Anand, ed. by Atma Ram (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1994)

Nine Moods of Bharata: Novel of a Pilgrimage (New Delhi: Arnold Associates, 1998)

'Things Have a Way of Working Out'...and Other Stories (New Delhi: Orient, 1998)

Reflections on a White Elephant (New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications PVT Ltd., 2002)


Anand, Mulk Raj, Across the Black Waters (London: Cape, 1940), pp. 30-1

Date of birth: 
12 Dec 1905

Across the Black Waters is a war novel written from the perspective of Indian sepoys enlisted to fight in the Flanders trenches during the First World War. Drafted partly in Barcelona in 1937 and influenced by Anand’s recent experience of fighting for the Republican cause in Spain, it is one of a trilogy of novels which focuses on peasant (subaltern) experiences of war and changing conditions in early twentieth century India. Across the Black Waters is not often remembered as a ‘British war novel’ but bears significant comparison to E. M. Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front and Stephen Crane’s The Red Badge of Courage.

Contributions to periodicals: 

Congress Socialist


Fortnightly Review

Indian Writing

Labour Monthly

Left Review

Life and Letters Today

The Listener

New Statesman and Nation

New Writing

Reynold's Illustrated News


Times Literary Supplement



Herbert Read, The Listener, 24 December 1930 (Persian Painting)

R. A. Scott-James, London Mercury 32.187, May 1935 (Untouchable)

John Somerfield, Left Review 1.10, July 1935 (Untouchable)

Peter Burra, Spectator 5635, 26 June 1936 (Coolie)

Peter Quennell, New Statesman and Nation 12.280, 4 July 1936

Cedric Dover, Congress Socialist 1.35, 22 August 1936 (Coolie)

V. S. Pritchett, London Mercury 34.202, August 1936

Ronald Dewsbury, Life and Letters Today 15.5, Autumn 1936 (Coolie)

Edgwell Rickword, Congress Socialist 2.8, 27 February 1937

Arnold Palmer, London Mercury 36.211, May 1937

New Statesman and Nation 14.332, 3 July 1937

L. J. Godwin, Spectator 5695, 20 August 1937 (Two Leaves and a Bud)

Stephen Spender, Life and Letters Today 16.8, Summer 1937 (Two Leaves and a Bud)

Anthony West, New Statesman and Nation 27.425, 15 April 1939 (The Village)

Kate O’Brien, Spectator 5783, 28 April 1939 (The Village)

Bonamy Dobree, Spectator 5865, 22 November 1940 (Across the Black Waters)

Maurice Collis, Time and Tide 21.48, 30 November 1940 (Across the Black Waters)

Kate O’Brien, Spectator 5938, 17 April 1942 (The Sword and the Sickle)

Tullis Clare, Time and Tide 33.17, 25 April 1942 (The Sword and the Sickle)

Times Literary Supplement, 2 May 1942 (The Sword and the Sickle)

George Orwell, The Times Literary Supplement, 23 May 1942 (The Sword and the Sickle)

George Orwell, Horizon, July 1942

George Orwell, Tribune, 19 March 1943

F. J. Brown, Life and Letters Today 47.99, November 1945 (The Big Heart)

S. Menon Marath, Life and Letters Today 59, December 1948

Walter Allen, New Statesman and Nation 46.1174, 5 September 1953


Lalu was full of excitement to be going along to this city. The march through Marseilles had been merely a fleeting expedition, and he was obsessed with something which struggled to burst through all the restraints and the embarrassment of the unfamiliar, to break through the fear of the exalted life that the Europeans lived, the rare high life of which he, like all the sepoys, had only had distant glimpses from the holes and crevices in the thick hedges outside the Sahib’s bungalows in India. And, as he walked under the shadows of mansions with shuttered windows like those on the houses of Marseilles, reading the names of shops on the boards, as he walked past vineyards dappled by the pale sun, past stretches of grassy land…his tongue played with the name of this city, Orleans, and there was an echo in his mind, from the memory of something which had happened here, something which he could not remember.

‘A quieter city than Marsels,’ Uncle Kirpu said…

‘Oh! Water, oh there is a stream!’ shouted the sepoys whose impetuosity knew no bounds.

Lalu rushed up and saw the stream on the right, flowing slowly, gently, and shouted:


Everything is small in these parts,’ Kirpu said. ‘Look at their rivers – not bigger than our small nullahs. Their whole land can be crossed in a night’s journey, when it takes two nights and days from the frontier to my village in the district of Kangra. Their rain is like the pissing of a child. And their storms are a mere breeze in the tall grass…’

Secondary works: 

Abidi, Syed Zaheer Hasan, Mulk Raj Anand's Coolie: A Critical Study (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1976)

Abidi, S. Z., Mulk Raj Anand's 'Untouchable': A Critical Study (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1977)

Agnihotri, G. N., Indian Life and Problems in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R. K. Narayan (Meerut: Shalabh Book House, 1984)

Agrawal, B. R., Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2006)

Amur, G. S., Forbidden Fruit: Views on Indo-Anglian Fiction (Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1992) 

Anjaneyulu, T., A Critical Study of the Selected Novels of Mulk Raj Anand, Manohar Malgonkar and Khushwant Singh (New Delhi: Atlantic, 1998)

Arora, Neena, The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A Study of His Hero (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2005)

Bhatnagar, Manmohan K. and Rajeshwar, M., The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A Critical Study (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2000)

Berry, Margaret, Mulk Raj Anand: The Man and the Novelist (Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1971)

Bheemaiah, J., Class and Caste in Literature: The Fiction of Harriet B. Stowe and Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Prestige Books, 2005)

Bluemel, Kristin, George Orwell and the Radical Eccentrics: Intermodernism in Literary London (New York and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)

Cowasjee, Saros, Mulk Raj Anand: Coolie: An Assessment (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976)

Cowasjee, Saros, So Many Freedoms: A Study of the Major Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1977)

Dayal, B., A Critical Study of the Themes and Techniques of the Indo-Anglian Short Story Writers with Special Reference to Mulk Raj Anand, R. K. Narayan and K. A. Abbas (Ranchi: Jubilee Prakashan, 1985)

Dhar, T. N., History-Fiction Interface in Indian English Novel: Mulk Raj Anand, Nayantara Sahgal, Salman Rushdie, Shashi Tharoor, O. V. Vijayan (London: Sangam, 1999)

Dhawan, R. K., The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Prestige, 1992)

Fisher, Marlene, The Wisdom of the Heart: A Study of the Works of Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Sterling, 1985)

Gautam, G. L., Mulk Raj Anand's Critique of Religious Fundamentalism: A Critical Assessment of His Novels (Delhi: Kanti Publications, 1996)

George, C. J., Mulk Raj Anand, His Art and Concerns: A Study of His Non-Autobiographical Novels (New Delhi: Atlantic, 1994)

Gupta, G. S. Balarama, Mulk Raj Anand: A Study of His Fiction in Humanist Perspective (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 1974)

Indra Mohan, T. M. J., The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A New Critical Spectrum (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2005)

Jain, Sushil Kumar, An Annotated Bibliography of Dr. Mulk Raj Anand (Regina, Sask, 1965)

Khan, S. A., Mulk Raj Anand: The Novel of Commitment (New Delhi: Atlantic, 2000)

Krishna Rao, Angara Venkata, The Indo-Anglian Novel and the Changing Tradition: A Study of the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand, Kamala Markandaya, R. K. Narayan and Raja Rao, 1930-64 (Mysore: Rao & Raghavan, 1972)

Lindsay, Jack, Mulk Raj Anand: A Critical Essay (Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1948)

Mishra, Binod, Existential Concerns in Novels of Mulk Raj Anand (Delhi: Adhyayan Publishers & Distributors, 2005)

Naik, M. K., Mulk Raj Anand (London: Arnold-Heinemann India, 1973)

Nasimi, Reza Ahmad, The Language of Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, and R. K. Narayan (Delhi: Capital Publishing House, 1989)

Nautiyal, Sarojani, An Introduction to Three Indo-Anglian Novels: Untouchable, The Serpent and the Rope, The Man-Eater of Malgudi (Ambala: IBA Publications, 2001)

Niven, Alastair, 'Anand, Mulk Raj (1905-2004)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2008) []

Niven, Alastair, The Yoke of Pity: A Study in the Fictional Writings of Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1978)

Pacham, G., Mulk Raj Anand: A Check-List (Mysore: Centre for Commonwealth Literature and Research, University of Mysore, 1983)

Patil, V. T., Gandhism and Indian English Fiction: The Sword and the Sickle, Kanthapura and Waiting for the Mahatma (Delhi: Devika, 1997)

Paul, Premila, The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A Thematic Study (New Delhi: Sterling, 1983)

Prasad, Amar Nath, Critical Response to V. S. Naipaul and Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2003)

Prasad, Shaileshwar Sati, The Insulted and the Injured: Untouchables, Coolies, and Peasants in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand (Patna: Janaki Prakashan, 1997)

Rajan, P. K., Studies in Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1986)

Rajan, P. K., Mulk Raj Anand: A Revaluation (New Delhi: Arnold Associates, 1995)

Savio, G. Dominic, Voices of the Voiceless: Mulk Raj Anand and Jayakanthan: Social Consciousness and Indian Fiction (New Delhi: Prestige Books, 2006)

Sharma, Ambuj Kumar, Gandhian Strain in the Indian English Novel (New Delhi: Sarup, 2004)

Sharma, Ambuj Kumar, The Theme of Exploitation in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: H. K. Publishers and Distributors, 1990)

Sharma, K. K., Four Great Indian English Novelists: Some Points of View (New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2002)

Sharma, K. K., Perspectives on Mulk Raj Anand (Ghaziabad: Vimal, 1978)

Singh, Pramod Kumar, Five Contemporary Indian Novelists: An Anthology of Critical Studies on Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R. K. Narayan, Kamala Markandaya and Bhabani Bhattacharya (Jaipur: Book Enclave, 2001)

Singh, R. V., Mulk Raj Anand's Shorter Fiction: A Study of His Social Vision (New Delhi: Satyam, 2004)

Singh, Vaidyanath, Social Realism in the Fiction of Dickens and Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Commonwealth Publishers, 1997)

Sinha, Krishna Nandan, Mulk Raj Anand (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1972)

Suresh Kumar, A. V., Six Indian Novelists: Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R. K. Narayan, Balachandran Rajan, Kamala Markandaya, Anita Desai (New Delhi: Creative Books, 1996)

Suryanarayana Murti, K. V., The Sword and the Sickle: A Study of Mulk Raj Anand's Novels (Mysore: Geetha Book House, 1983)

Thorat, Ashok, Five Great Indian Novel: A Discourse Analysis: Mulk Raj Anand's Untouchable, Raja Rao's Kanthapura, Kushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan, Rama Mehta's Inside the Haveli, Chaman Nahal's Azadi (New Delhi: Prestige, 2000)

Vijayasree, C., Mulk Raj Anand: The Raj and the Writer (New Delhi: B. R., 1998)


The significance of this passage – and the book as a whole – lies in the fact that it favours the viewpoint of the sepoys Anand depicts. The narrative succeeds in reversing the notion of the ‘other’ so that the English sahibs, the French and Europeans (including the landscape they find themselves in, as well as their history) are presented as both alien and exotic. It reveals some of the deceptions of ‘empire’ and the exploitation of the sepoys whose conditions are described in depth, and highlights the need to question enlightenment history and Western authority. The novel also raises issues of translation and disorientation, both for the British reader (the intended audience) and for the characters who have crossed the black waters to Europe.

Archive source: 

BBC Written Archives, Caversham Park, Reading

British Library Sound Archive, St Pancras

Leonard Woolf Archive, University of Sussex Special Collections

Monks House Papers (Virginia Woolf), University of Sussex Special Collections

The George Orwell Archive, University College London

Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, US (some publishing papers relating to the publishing history of Untouchable)

India League files, L/PJ/12/448-54, India Office Records, Asian and African Studies Reading Room, British Library, St Pancras

Papers of Saros Cowasjee, Dr John Archer Library, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

Involved in events: 

Meetings of the Indian National Congress, Lahore, 1929

Second Conference of the International Association of Writers for the Defence of Culture, London, 19-23 June 1936

Spanish Civil War (joined International Brigade in 1937)

XVIII International PEN Conference, London, 1941 (delivered plea for independence)

Numerous India League meetings

City of birth: 
Country of birth: 
Current name country of birth: 


8 St George's Mews Regent's Park Road
London, NW1 8XE
United Kingdom
51° 32' 26.9484" N, 0° 9' 30.5532" W
Date of death: 
28 Sep 2004
Location of death: 
Pune, India
Date of 1st arrival in Britain: 
01 Sep 1925
Dates of time spent in Britain: 

1925-45. Trips back to India and elsewhere during this period: 1929 (India), 1930 (Rome, Paris and Vienna to visit art galleries), 1935 (India), 1937 (Spain, three months with the International Brigade in the University Trenches).


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