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Dr Cristina Santos

Profile summary

Research interests

I am interested in the Economics of the Household, in how decisions about working for pay, spending or saving impact on individuals within the context of their household, in how inequalities and violence may arise within the household, and how policy and the socio-economic context can help ameliorate or worsen these inequalities. I am a Co-Investigator on the research project Gender and intra-household entitlements. A cross-national longitudinal analysis.

Along the same lines, I am interested in the Economics of Happiness and in approaches and theories that enrich the notions and working scope of well-being, mainly on the Capabilities Approach. I am currently involved in the Capabilities Measurement Project headed by Paul Anand.

Teaching interests

Currently chairing the making of DD126 Economics in Context, previously chaired the making of DD209 Running the economy.
Chaired the presentation of DD209 Running the Economy, DB123 You and your money: personal finance in context, DD202 Economics and Economic Change, and DD309 Doing Economics: People, Markets, and Policy. Been a module team member of these and other modules.

Was lucky enough to also be a tutor for DB123 You and your money: personal finance in context

At postgraduate level, I have taught Trade and Development at Economics, University of Essex (2011-2012), and currently leading a lecture on Human Development and the Capabilities Approach under the Grand Union Doctoral Training Programme, and participating in the Faculty's training programmes also.

I am currently supervising three PhD students, and welcome applications.

Research groups

NameTypeParent Unit
Centre for Citizenship, Identifies and Governance (CCIG)CentreFaculty of Social Sciences


Externally funded projects

How to link industrial and social innovation for inclusive development: lessons from tackling cancer care in Africa
RoleStart dateEnd dateFunding source
Co-investigator01 Sep 201831 Aug 2021ESRC Economic and Social Research Council

This new project is supported by the ESRC under the GCRF Inclusive Societies initiative. It aims to demonstrate the benefits for inclusive development of linking local industrial and social innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It will do this by addressing the “hard case” of increasing access to cancer care in East Africa.

Long-term conditions and mental health in Sub-Saharan Africa: mainstreaming community-based practices
RoleStart dateEnd dateFunding source
Co-investigator01 Jan 201831 Dec 2018The Academy of Medical Sciences

We will establish the first consortium to focus systematically on building evidence and community practice to tackle comorbidity between mental illness and other long-term conditions (LTCs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Such comorbidity is increasing rapidly and presents a major challenge to SSA health care provision. Community-based interventions appear to be an efficacious response to this problem. However evidence to support this is still weak, especially in SSA. This proposal builds on our existing collaborations which have begun to examine the scope for inclusive and affordable community practice to tackle such comorbidities (Lloyd et al., 2015; Meddenhall et al., 2017). This proposal will build a sustainable research network of African and UK researchers to: 1. Generate a greater shared understanding of existing research on the interrelationships between mental health and other LTCs and the role of community engagement in SSA in tackling the challenge; 2. Identify gaps in current research and practice in different SSA countries from a range of disciplinary perspectives and experience; 3. Develop methodologies for combining research and practice to create and evaluate partnerships with communities for problem identification, decision-making and shared actions for prevention, treatment and management of comorbid mental and physical LTCs; 4. Develop and submit research proposals based on these methodologies; 5. Support the development and training of novice/early career researchers from SSA; 6. Create low cost-effective networking among a new strong and sustainable African network with UK partners for a long term impact in health research.


Patients’ pathways to cancer care in Tanzania: documenting and addressing social inequalities in reaching a cancer diagnosis (2022)
Makene, Fortunata Songora; Ngilangwa, Richard; Santos, Cristina; Cross, Charlotte; Ngoma, Twalib; Mujinja, Phares G. M.; Wuyts, Marc and Mackintosh, Maureen
BMC Health Services Research, 22, Article 189(1)

Are we empowering women? (2017-03)
Santos, Cristina
Policy in Focus, 14(1) (pp. 7-9)

Costs of Domestic Violence: A Life Satisfaction Approach (2013-09-05)
Santos, Cristina
Fiscal Studies, 34(3) (pp. 391-409)

Sharing of resources within the family and the economics of household decision-making (2013-06)
Himmelweit, Susan; Santos, Cristina; Sevilla, Almudena and Sofer, Catherine
Journal of Marriage and Family, 75(3) (pp. 625-639)

Violent Crime, Gender Inequalities and Well-Being: Models based on a Survey of Individual Capabilities and Crime Rates for England and Wales (2007)
Anand, Paul and Santos, Cristina
Revue d'Economie Politique, 117(1) (pp. 877-902)

Gender equality and taxation. A UK case study (2010-05-14)
de Henau, Jerome; Himmelweit, Susan and Santos, Cristina
In: Grown, Karen and Valodia, Imraan eds. Taxation and gender equity. A comparative analysis of direct and indirect taxes in developing and developed countries. Routledge International Studies in Money and Banking (pp. 261-298)
ISBN : 978-0-415-49262-1 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

Violent crime, gender inequalities and well-being: models based on capabilities and crime data for England and Wales (2009-07)
Anand, Paul and Santos, Cristina
In: Harris, Bernard; Gálvez, Lina and Machado, Helena eds. Gender and Well-Being in Europe: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (pp. 157-184)
ISBN : 9780754672647 | Publisher : Ashgate | Published : Farnham

The measurement of capabilities (2008)
Anand, Paul; Santos, Cristina and Smith, Ron
In: Basu, Kaushik and Kanbur, Ravi eds. Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume I: Ethics, Welfare, and Measurement (pp. 283-310)
ISBN : 978-0-19-923911-5 | Publisher : Oxford University Press | Published : Oxford

Dimensions of Well-Being: Earnings, Happiness and Domestic Violence (2013-04)
Santos, Cristina
PhD thesis University College London

Cancer patients’ pathways: evidence and implications for policy (2020-08)
Makene, Fortunata Songora; Ngilangwa, Richard Gordon; Mackintosh, Maureen; Santos, Cristina; Cross, Charlotte; Mujinja, Phares G.M. and Ngoma, Twalib
Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF), Innovation for Cancer Care in Africa (ICCA), The Open University

Education Workforce Initiative: Initial Research (2018-04-30)
Wolfenden, Freda; Buckler, Alison; Santos, Cristina and Mittelmeier, Jenna
International Commission on Financing Education Opportunity (The Education Commission)

Wealth Accumulation and Home Ownership of US young adults: 2005-2009 (2012-01-01)
Santos, Cristina

Gender analysis of the changes in indirect taxes introduced by the coalition government, 2010-2011 (2011-06)
de Henau, Jerome and Santos, Cristina
Women's Budget Group, United Kingdom.

Estimating linear birth cohort effects: revisiting the age-happiness profile (2007-01)
Santos, Cristina
Open University, Economics Department, Milton Keynes, UK.