## Professional biography

Clare Lee is a lecturer in the Faculty of Well-being Education and Languages Studies.

I am area co-ordinator for the EdD and Chair of two modules in the Masters in Education at the Open University. I am passionately committed to improving teaching as a whole and the teaching of mathematics in particular. I work collaboratively with pre-service and in-service teachers to research how this can be done, publishing books and journal articles on a regular basis. My research expertise concerns the development of Mathematical Resilience in all learners from young people in school to adult learners. This expertise contributes to the work of National Advisory panels on mathematical education.

My research is grounded in extensive professional experience as a mathematics teacher and as a local authority assessment consultant. My research work started with the exciting role of Research Fellow on the Nuffield funded KMOFAP (Kings Medway Oxfordshire Formative Assessment Project) project resulting in the innovative, highly influential and widely used Assessment for Learning Materials. I am co-author of both *Working Inside the Black Box* and *Assessment for Learning - Putting it into Practice*.

I currently supervise PhD students and EdD students in mathematics education across all age groups, I enjoy working with them to develop their ideas and to develop new knowledge about the nature of learning mathematics, how to improve it and how assessment really can improve learning in schools. Anyone interested in submitting a proposal in this area is welcome to contact me,

## Research interests

My research expertise concerns the improvement of teaching both in mathematics and across the curriculum. My work makes a significant contribution to our understanding of how to teach for Mathematical Resilience. This programme of research builds on my previous work on both Assessment for Learning across all curriculum subjects and The Role of Language in the Learning of Mathematics.

One of the key outcomes of my work is the construct of “Mathematical Resilience”. If mathematics is difficult to master, and many people say that it is, then learners will need to develop a positive adaptive stance to mathematics such that it will allow them to continue learning despite barriers and difficulties. This positive adaptive stance to mathematics I have termed “Mathematical Resilience”. A mathematical learning environment can be a positive place for the pupils where barriers to learning mathematics can be overcome. Pupils who have a high level of mathematical resilience know that it is worth persevering when faced with difficulties and know many ways of doing this, work collaboratively with their peers, have the language skills needed to express their understandings and have a growth theory of mathematical learning .

My research speaks to the STEM agenda, which is concerned with the lack of take up of science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics both at ‘A’ level and higher levels, including apprenticeships. Mathematical resilience can enable students to know that they can overcome barriers and thus make them more likely to continue to study and to succeed in that study.

My expertise in open and distance education has also had impact internationally, shaping the development of ambitious, innovative, large scale teacher education initiatives. In creating the TESS-India materials, I worked in partnership with Indian colleagues to devise and produce web based distance learning materials explicitly designed to support teachers in changing the way that they facilitate learning in their classrooms. I built capacity within the Indian education system by supporting teacher educators in using the materials in their role of changing established classroom practices, The teacher educators and other education officials use the materials to mediate the creation a community of practice that will be sustainable.

## Teaching interests

I have responsibility for the creation of two innovative distance –learning masters modules which I currently chair. EE830 Learning and teaching: educating the next generation, will be the first of a new pathway and is forging a new practices in agile production and active presentation. I also co-ordinate an area of study within the Doctor in Education programme.

## Impact and engagement

My construct of Mathematics Resilience is making an impact both nationally and internationally. In January 2015 I convened the Shard Symposium in London, which was followed by the First and Second Internal Conference on Mathematical Resilience in March 2016 and March 2017. At these conferences papers were presented showing how and why mathematical resilience is important across all strata of society. Three main strands emerged, developing Mathematical Resilience in schools and with parents and coaching for mathematical resilience in work-based learners.

## Publications

### Journal articles

**[Book Review] Thinking Collaboratively: Learning in a Community of Inquiry by D. Randy Garrison (2018)**

Lee, Clare

Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2018, Article 14(1)

**Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale (2016-07)**

Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 49(3) (pp. 217-242)

**Learning mathematics - letting the pupils have their say (2013-06)**

Lee, Clare and Johnston-Wilder, Sue

Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83(2) (pp. 163-180)

**Exit interviews: undergraduates who leave mathematics behind (2011-07)**

Ward-Penny, Robert; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

For the Learning of Mathematics, 31(2) (pp. 21-26)

**Mathematical resilience (2010-05)**

Lee, Clare and Johnston-Wilder, Sue

Mathematics Teaching, MT218, (pp. 38-41)

**Studying changes in the practice of two teachers developing assessment for learning. (2005)**

Lee, Clare and Wiliam, Dylan

Teacher Development: An international journal of teachers' professional development, 9(2) (pp. 265-283)

**Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom (2004-09)**

Black, Paul; Harrison, Christine; Lee, Clare; Marshal, Bethan and Wiliam, Dylan

Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1) (pp. 8-21)

**Teachers developing assessment for learning: impact on student achievement. (2004-03)**

Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine and Black, Paul

Assessment in Education: Principles Policy and Practice, 11(1) (pp. 49-65)

**All change: approaching teaching from a new perspective (2003)**

Lee, C. S.

Curriculum Briefing, 2(1) (pp. 12-16)

**Modelling in the mathematics classroom (2000-06)**

Lee, Clare

Mathematics Teaching, 171 (pp. 28-31)

### Authored books

**Language for Learning Mathematics - Assessment for Learning in Practice (2006)**

Lee, Clare

ISBN : 9780335219889 | Publisher : Open University Press | Published : Buckingham

**Assessment for Learning- putting it into practice (2003-09)**

Black, Paul; Harrison, Christine; Lee, Clara; Marshall, Bethan and William, Dylan

ISBN : 9780335212972 | Publisher : Open university Press | Published : Maidenhead, U.K.

**Working Inside the Black Box- Assessment for Learning in the Classroom (2002)**

Black, Paul; Harrison, Christine; Lee, Clare; Marshall, Bethan and William, Dylan

ISBN : 9780708713792 | Publisher : GL assessment | Published : London, U.K.

**Discussion in a Mathematics Classroom: Developing a Teacher's Awareness of the Issues and Characteristics (1998)**

Lee, Clare S.

CMER occational papers

ISBN : 9780903535380 | Publisher : Centre for Mathematics Education Research, University of Oxford | Published : Oxford, U.K.

### Book chapters

**The Construct of Mathematical Resilience (2017-05-15)**

Lee, Clare and Johnston-Wilder, Sue

In: Xolocotzin Eligio, Ulises ed.

*Understanding Emotions in Mathematical Thinking and Learning*(pp. 269-291)

ISBN : 9780128022184 | Publisher : Elsevier

**Mathematical resilience: what is it and why is it important? (2014-12-01)**

Lee, Clare and Johnston-Wilder, Sue

In: Chinn, Steve ed.

*The Routledge International Handbook of Dyscalculia and Mathematical Learning Difficulties*(pp. 337-345)

ISBN : 978-0-415-82285-5 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Action research: systematic reflective action to improve practice (2012-11-16)**

Lee, Clare

In: Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Ward-Penny, Robert eds.

*A Practical Guide to Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School*. Routledge Teaching Guides (pp. 113-122)

ISBN : 978-0-415-50820-9 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Planning mathematics lessons (2012-11-16)**

Ward-Penny, Robert and Lee, Clare

In: Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Ward-Penny, Robert eds.

*A Practical Guide to Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School*. Routledge Teaching Guides (pp. 3-12)

ISBN : 978-0-415-50820-9 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Practical assessment for learning (2012-11-16)**

Lee, Clare

In: Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Ward-Penny, Robert eds.

*A Practical Guide to Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School*. Routledge Teaching Guides (pp. 13-20)

ISBN : 978-0-415-50820-9 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Assessment for learning (2011)**

Lee, Clare

In: Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Pimm, David and Lee, Clare eds.

*Learning to teach Mathematics in the Secondary School*(pp. 101-122)

ISBN : 9780415565585 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Mathematics in context (2010-08-09)**

Lee, Clare and Ward-Penny, Robert

In: Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Pimm, David and Lee, Clare eds.

*Learning to Teach Mathematics in the Secondary School: a companion to school experience, 3rd edition*. Learning to teach subjects in the secondary school (pp. 206-224)

ISBN : 9780415565585 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Leading assessment for learning mathematics (2010)**

Lee, C.

In: Johnston-Wilder, S. and Lee, C. eds.

*Leading Practice and Managing Change in the Mathematics Department*

ISBN : 9781907550027 | Publisher : Tarquin Press | Published : St Albans

**Taking a lead on developing professional practice (2010)**

Lee, C.; Broadley, A.; Rattigan, T. and Watson, A.

In: Johnston-Wilder, S. and Lee, C. eds.

*Leading Practice and Managing Change in the Mathematics Department*

ISBN : 9781907550027 | Publisher : Tarquin Press | Published : St Albans

**Using assessment data to enhance professional practice (2010)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In: Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare eds.

*Leading Practice and Managing Change in the Mathematics Department*

ISBN : 9781907550027 | Publisher : Tarquin Press | Published : St Albans

### Edited book

**Learning to Teach Mathematics in the Secondary School: A companion to school experience (4th Edition) (2017)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare and Pimm, David eds.

Learning to Teach Subjects in the Secondary School

ISBN : 978-1-138-94390-2 | Publisher : Routledge

**A Practical Guide to Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School (2012-11-16)**

Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Ward-Penny, Robert eds.

Routledge Teaching Guides

ISBN : 978-0-415-50820-9 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Learning to Teach Mathematics in the Secondary School: a Companion to School Experience (3rd ed.) (2011)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Pimm, David and Lee, Clare eds.

Learning to Teach Subjects in the Secondary School Series

ISBN : 9780415565585 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon

**Leading Practice and Managing Change in the Mathematics Department (2010)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare eds.

ISBN : 9781907550027 | Publisher : Tarquin Press | Published : St Albans, UK

### Conference items

**Using a Masters course to explore the challenges and opportunities of incorporating Sustainability into a range of educational contexts (2019)**

Fox, Alison; Addison-Pettit, Paula; Lee, Clare and Stutchbury, Kris

In : International Symposium on Climate Change and the Role of Education (12-13 Apr 2019, Lincoln)

**How can we address mathematics anxiety more effectively as a community? (2019)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In : 15th International Conference of The Mathematics Education for the Future Project Theory and Practice: An Interface or A Great Divide? (04-09 Aug 2019, Maynooth University, Kildare, Ireland) ((In Press))

**Mathematical Resilience Workshop (2018)**

Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Pardoe, Steve; Baker, Janet; Heshmati, Holly and Nyama, Joyce

In : British Congress for Mathematics Education 9 (3-6 Apr 2018, Warwick)

**Teachers’ Accounts of Developing Mathematical Resilience in the Classroom (2017)**

Lee, Clare and Ward-Penny, Robert

In : The Second International Conference on Mathematical Resilience (3-4 Mar 2017, The Open University)

**Addressing the affective domain to increase effective-ness of mathematical thinking and problem solving (2017)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In : IMA and CETL-MSOR 2017: Mathematics Education beyond 16: Pathways and Transitions (10-12 Jul 2017, University of Birmingham)

**Developing coaches for mathematical resilience: level 2 (2014-11)**

Johnston-Wilder, S.; Lee, C.; Garton, E. and Brindley, J.

In : 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICER 2014) (17-19 Nov 2014, Seville, Spain) (pp. 4457-4465)

**Measuring mathematical resilience: an application of the construct of resilience to the study of mathematics. (2013)**

Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; Mccoach, D. Betsy; Johnson-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In : American Educational Research Association (AERA) 2013 Annual Meeting: Education and Poverty: Theory, Research, Policy and Praxis (27 Apr - 1 May 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA)

**Developing coaches for mathematical resilience (2013)**

Johnston-Wilder, S.; Lee, C.; Garton, L.; Goodlad, S. and Brindley, J.

In : 2013 ICERI 2013 : 6th International Conference on Education, Research and Innovation (18-20 Nov 2013, Seville, Spain)

**Developing mathematical resilience (2010)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In : BERA Annual Conference 2010 (1-4 Sep 2010, University of Warwick)

**Does articulation matter when learning mathematics? (2008)**

Johnston-Wilder, Sue and Lee, Clare

In : Proceedings for the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (15 Nov 2008, London)

### Other

**Area 1: An Overview of Evidence for the National Approach to Professional Learning in Education (2018-10)**

Lee, Clare and Richings, Lorraine

Welsh Government, Cardiff.

**Engaging Opportunities: Connecting young people with contemporary research and researchers (2018-02-01)**

Holliman, Richard; Davies, Gareth; Ford, Diane; Russell, Mark; Steed, Anthony; Brown, Helen; Pearson, Victoria; Collins, Trevor; Stutchbury, Kris; Squires, Andrew; Scanlon, Eileen; Whitelegg, Liz; Ansine, Janice; Braithwaite, N St.J; Swithenby, Stephen; Dommett, Ellie; Sumner, Janet; Lee, Clare; Kendall, Joe; Green, Penny; Sharp, Damien; Bullivant, Mike; Devine, Peter and Hawthorne, Val

The Open University and the Denbigh Teaching School Alliance, Milton Keynes.

**Getting into and staying in the Growth Zone (2018-02)**

Lee, Clare and Johnston-Wilder, Sue

NRICH

**Moving towards more participatory practice with Open Educational Resources: TESS-India Academic Review (2017-05)**

Wolfenden, Freda; Adinolfi, Lina; Cross, Simon; Lee, Clare; Paranjpe, Sandhya and Safford, Kimberly

The Open University, Milton Keynes.