“While using computers to score essays may have seemed like science fiction when first conceived (Page 1966) such application may seem remarkably mundane when compared to contemporary capabilities of computers to win game shows , respond amicably to our vocal commands and drive cars. That dismissive view fades, of course, when we recall that writing is among the most complex of human behaviors, both vehicle and subject of thought and culture.”
Elliot, N. & Williamson, D.M. (2013) Assessing Writing special issue: Assessing writing with automated scoring systems. Assessing Writing 18, 1-6.
Page, E. B. (1966). The imminence of grading essays by computer. Phi Delta Kappan, 48, 238–243.