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Professor William Nuttall

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Professional biography

Bill Nuttall is Professor of Energy having joined the Open University in October 2012. Much of his work has focussed on technology and policy issues of energy. He has had a leading role in studies devoted to particular energy-related materials including plutonium, helium, uranium, thorium and hydrogen and much of that work is on-going. 
He has long-standing experience of matters relating to civil nuclear energy and more recent experience associated with hydrogen energy systems.
Professor Nuttall’s career started in experimental physics and this technical background informs his interest in energy and technology issues. Beyond energy he has written on matters of technology policy. Nuttall’s research techniques have included energy economics, energy system case studies, agent-based simulation and system dynamics especially as applied to problems in resource depletion. He also maintains a link to laboratory-based technical studies relating to energy policy issues. 
Professor Nuttall discusses nuclear energy policy in this short video and the gas helium in this short video.
Professor Nuttall coordinates OU Energy a reserch community of practice at The Open University. 


 

 

Research interests

Main Research Interests

  • Civil Nuclear Energy Technology and Policy
  • Hydrogen Futures

 

Current Funded Research Projects

 
Enhanced Methodologies for Advanced Nuclear System Safety (eMEANSS)

An EPSRC funded research project assessing the impact of uncertainties within the nuclear industry. The project forms part of the India-UK civil nuclear research collaboration. EPSRC grant reference number: EP/T016329/1  - details here

 
JUNO: A Network for Japan - UK Nuclear Opportunities

An EPSRC funded network fostering civil nuclear collaboration in selected areas between the UK and Japan. EPSRC grant reference number EP/P0136001/1 - details here

 
"ICO-CDT" EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Nuclear Energy: Building UK Civil Nuclear Skills for Global Markets. 

An EPSRC funded centre for doctoral training in nuclear energy (admitting students 2014-2019) EPSRC grant reference number: EP/L015900/1 - details here

 

 

 

Teaching interests

Current Teaching activities:

Prospective Chair for the production of 'T803', planned successor to the MSc project module T847.
T176 Residential School/ Home Experiment Activity - Tutor 
Module results panel member for various School of Engineering and Innovation modules. 
Professor Nuttall is also lead for the University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering module NE6 Nuclear Energy Policy. He is an Affiliated Lecturer for CUED via an arrangement betwen the two universities. 
 

 

Impact and engagement

Follow Professor Nuttall on LinkedIn and at TheConversation.

 

 

External collaborations

Professor Nuttall is a Fellow of Hughes Hall, a college of the University of Cambridge
He is also a Visiting Fellow at the Payne Institute for Public Policy at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden CO, USA. 

 

 

In the last five years (2017-2022) Professor Nuttall has co-authored research work in collaboration with researchers from the following overseas institutions:​

  • Carnegie Mellon University, USA

  • Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania 

  • National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Romania

  • University of Kyoto, Japan

  • Payne Institute at the Colorado School of Mines, CO, USA

  • Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, India

  • EGADE Business School, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico

  • Faculty of Management, University of Lodz, Poland

  • IC-2 Institute, University of Texas, Austin, TX USA 

  • National University of Singapore

 

Publications

A methodology for techno-economic evaluation of asymmetric energy storage systems: A nuclear energy case study (2022-05)
Wilson, Andy; Nuttall, William J. and Glowacki, Bartek A.
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 147, Article 104127


The modern global oil market under stress - system dynamics and scenarios (2022)
Madhavi, Madhu and Nuttall, William J.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy ((Accepted Manuscript Online))


ISRU technology deployment at a lunar outpost in 2040: A Delphi survey (2021-04)
Spedding, Christopher P.; Lim, Sungwoo and Nuttall, William J.
Acta Astronautica, 181 (pp. 316-324)


Technology Roadmapping for mission-led agile hardware development: a case study of a commercial fusion energy start-up (2020-09)
Pearson, R.J.; Costley, A.E.; Phaal, R. and Nuttall, W.J.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 158, Article 120064


Energy requirements of a thermally processed ISRU radiation shield for a lunar habitat (2020-06-01)
Spedding, Christopher P.; Nuttall, William J. and Lim, Sungwoo
Advances in Space Research, 65(11) (pp. 2467-2474)


Energy and the military: Convergence of security, economic, and environmental decision-making (2019-11)
Samaras, Constantine; Nuttall, William J. and Bazilian, Morgan
Energy Strategy Reviews, 26, Article 100409


Low Carbon Futures: confronting electricity challenges on island systems (2019-10)
Matthew, George; Nuttall, William; Mestel, Benjamin and Dooley, Laurence
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 147 (pp. 36-50)


Coal in the 21st Century: a climate of change and uncertainty (2019-07-17)
Madhavi, Madhu and Nuttall, William
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Energy, 172(2) (pp. 46-63)


Tritium supply and use: a key issue for the development of nuclear fusion energy (2018-11)
Pearson, Richard J.; Antoniazzi, Armando B. and Nuttall, William J.
Fusion Engineering and Design, 136 (pp. 1140-1148)


Editorial (2018-05)
Nuttall, William J.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 171(2) (pp. 47-48)


Predicting the cost of the consequences of a large nuclear accident in the UK (2017-11-30)
Ashley, S.F.; Vaughan, G.J.; Nuttall, W.J.; Thomas, P.J. and Higgins, N.A.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 112 (pp. 96-113)


Considerations in relation to off-site emergency procedures and response for nuclear accidents (2017-11)
Ashley, S. F.; Vaughan, G. J.; Nuttall, W. J. and Thomas, P. J.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 112(A) (pp. 77-95)


Compensating for severe nuclear accidents: An expert elucidation (2017-11)
Nuttall, William J.; Ashley, Stephen F. and Heffron, Raphael J.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 112(A) (pp. 131-142)


Editorial (2017-11)
Nuttall, William J.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 170(4) (pp. 135-136)


A dynamic simulation of low-carbon policy influences on endogenous electricity demand in an isolated island system (2017-10-31)
Matthew, George Jr.; Nuttall, William J.; Mestel, Ben and Dooley, Laurence S.
Energy Policy, 109 (pp. 121-131)


Strategic Real Option and Flexibility Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants Considering Uncertainty in Electricity Demand and Public Acceptance (2017-05)
Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Zhang, Sizhe and Nuttall, William J.
Energy Economics, 64 (pp. 226-237)


Romanian Tritium for Nuclear Fusion (2017-03-29)
Pearson, Richard J; Comsa, Olivia; Stefan, Liviu and Nuttall, William J
Fusion Science and Technology, 71(4) (pp. 610-615)


The global nuclear liability regime post Fukushima Daiichi (2016-07)
Heffron, Raphael J.; Ashley, Stephen F. and Nuttall, William J.
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 90 (pp. 1-10)


Sankey-Diagram-based insights into the hydrogen economy of today (2016-05-25)
Bakenne, Adetokunboh; Nuttall, William and Kazantzis, Nikolaos
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(19) (pp. 7744-7753)


Life-cycle impacts from novel thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems (2015-09-01)
Ashley, S. F.; Fenner, R. A.; Nuttall, W. J. and Parks, G. T.
Energy Conversion and Management, 101 (pp. 136-150)


A dynamic model of the global uranium market and the nuclear fuel cycle (2015-03-31)
Rooney, Matthew; Nuttall, William J. and Kazantzis, Nikolaos
Resources Policy, 43 (pp. 50-60)


Hydrogen cryomagnetics for decentralised energy management and superconductivity (2015-02)
Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.; Hanley, E.; Kennedy, L. and O’Flynn, D.
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, 28(2) (pp. 561-571)


Water corrosion of spent nuclear fuel: radiolysis driven dissolution at the UO2/water interface (2015-01-28)
Springell, Ross; Rennie, Sophie; Costelle, Leila; Darnbrough, James; Stitt, Camilla; Cocklin, Elizabeth; Lucas, Chris; Burrows, Robert; Sims, Howard; Wermeille, Didier; Rawle, Jonathan; Nicklin, Chris; Nuttall, William; Scott, Thomas and Lander, Gerard
Faraday Discussions, 180 (pp. 301-311)


High tension electricity: new multi-scale complexities in the electricity system (2015)
Bompard, Ettore; Masera, Marcelo and Nuttall, William J.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 96 (pp. 327-333)


Technology and policy issues relating to future developments in research and radioisotope production reactors (2014-11)
Nuttall, William J. and Storey, Peter
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 77 (pp. 201-213)


Fuel panics: insights from spatial agent-based simulation (2014-08-01)
Upton, Eben and Nuttall, William James
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 15(4) (pp. 1499-1509)


Fuel cycle modelling of open cycle thorium-fuelled nuclear energy systems (2014-07-31)
Ashley, S. F.; Lindley, B. A.; Parks, G. T.; Nuttall, W. J.; Gregg, R.; Hesketh, K. W.; Kannan, U.; Krishnani, P. D.; Singh, B.; Thakur, A.; Cowper, M. and Talamo, A.
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 69 (pp. 314-330)


The siting of UK nuclear reactors (2014)
Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J. and Vaughan, Geoff
Journal of Radiological Protection, 34(2) (R1-R24)


An economic evaluation framework for inherently safe membrane reactor modules in the presence of uncertainty: the case for process safety investment and risk reduction (2013-05)
Koc, Reyyan; Kazantzis, Nikolaus K.; Nuttall, William J. and Ma, Yi Hua
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26(3) (pp. 468-477)


Open cycle thorium–uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems (2013-04)
Ashley, Steve; Fenner, Richard; Nuttall, William and Parks, Geoffrey
Proceedings of the ICE: Energy, 166(EN2) (pp. 74-81)


Beyond the Helium conundrum (2013)
Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J. and Clarke, R. H.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 23, Article 500113(3)


Nuclear Energy: Thorium fuel has risks (2012-12-06)
Ashley, Stephen F.; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Nuttall, William J.; Boxall, Colin and Grimes, Robin G.
Nature, 492(7427) (pp. 31-33)


Minimising the economic cost and risk to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor technology: The case of designing for flexibility: Part 1 (2012-02)
Steer, Steven J.; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.; Parks, Geoffrey T. and Gonçalves, Leonardo V.N.
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 243 (pp. 135-147)


Resources: Stop squandering helium (2012)
Nuttall, William J.; Clarke, Richard H. and Glowacki, Bartek A.
Nature, 485(7400) (pp. 573-575)


Economic assessment of inherently safe membrane reactor technology options integrated into IGCC power plants (2012)
Koc, Reyyan; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Nuttall, William J. and Ma, Yi Hua
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(5) (pp. 436-450)


Minimizing the economic cost and risk to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor technology. Part 2: The case of designing for flexibility (2012)
Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Steer, Steven J.; Nuttall, William J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Gonçalves, Leonardo V.N. and de Neufville, Richard
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 243 (pp. 120-134)


Too big to fail — lessons for today and the future from British industrial policy, 1960–1990 (2011-10)
Nuttall, William J.; Holweg, Matthias and Leybovich, Michael E.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(8) (pp. 1286-1298)


Predicting the contractual cost of unplanned shutdowns of power stations: an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor case study (2011-08)
Steer, Steven J.; Nuttall, William J.; Parks, Geoffrey T. and Gonçalves, Leonardo V.N.
Electric Power Systems Research, 81(8) (pp. 1662-1671)


Evaluating government's policies on promoting smart metering diffusion in retail electricity markets via agent-based simulation (2011)
Zhang, Tao and Nuttall, William J.
Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2) (pp. 169-186)


Ongoing ascent to the helium production plateau—insights from system dynamics (2010-06)
Cai, Zhiming; Clarke, Richard H.; Glowacki, Bartek A.; Nuttall, William J. and Ward, Nick
Resources Policy, 35(2) (pp. 77-89)


Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance (2010)
Grimes, Robin W. and Nuttall, William
Science, 329(5993) (pp. 799-803)


Dynamics of the UK natural gas industry: system dynamics modelling and long-term energy policy analysis (2009)
Chyong Chi, Kong; Nuttall, William J. and Reiner, David M.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(3) (pp. 339-357)


A new energy security paradigm for the twenty-first century (2008-10)
Nuttall, William J. and Manz, Devon L.
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 75(8) (pp. 1247-1259)


The case for a new energy research, development and promotion policy for the UK (2008)
Jamasb, Tooraj; Nuttall, William J. and Pollitt, Michael
Energy Policy, 36(12) (pp. 4610-4614)


Fuel mix diversification incentives in liberalized electricity markets: a Mean–Variance Portfolio theory approach (2008)
Roques, Fabien; Newbery, David M. and Nuttall, William J.
Energy Economics, 30(4) (pp. 1831-1849)


Fossil Fuel Hydrogen: Technical, Economic and Environmental Potential (2020)
Nuttall, William James and Bakenne, Adetokunboh T.
ISBN : 978-3-030-30908-4 | Publisher : Springer International Publishing | Published : Switzerland


The smart future (2019-10-21)
Nuttall, William; Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro; Trzmielak, Dariusz and Gibson, David
Publisher : ICE Publishing


Britain and the Bomb - Technology, Culture and the Cold War (2019-09-09)
Nuttall, W. J.
ISBN : 978-1-84995-389-4 | Publisher : Whittles Publishing | Published : Dunbeath, Caithness, Scotland


Parallels Between the Future for MedTech and Agri-Tech, Perspectives Drawing on the British Experience (2021-05-07)
Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata; Lotfian, Pantea and Nuttall, William J.
In: Koukios, Emmanuel and Sacio-Szymanska, Anna eds. Bio#Futures Foreseeing and Exploring the Bioeconomy (pp. 229-247)
ISBN : 978-3-030-64968-5 | Publisher : Springer | Published : Switzerland


Introduction (2020-12)
Nuttall, William; Konishi, Satoshi; Takeda, Shutaro and Webbe-Wood, David
In: Nuttall, William; Takeda, Shutaro; Konishi, Satoshi and Webbe-Wood, David eds. Commercialising Fusion Energy - How small businesses are transforming big science
ISBN : 9780750327190 | Publisher : Institute of Physics Publishing | Published : Bristol


Chapter 7: Pioneers of commercial fusion (2020-12)
Pearson, Richard and Nuttall, William
In: Nuttall, William; Takeda, Shutaro; Konishi, Satoshi and Webbe-Wood, David eds. Commercialising Fusion Energy - How small businesses are transforming big science
ISBN : 9780750327190 | Publisher : Institute of Physics Publishing | Published : Bristol


Chapter 11: Commercial opportunities for nuclear fusion (2020-12)
Nuttall, William
In: Nuttall, William; Takeda, Shutaro; Konishi, Satoshi and Webbe-Wood, David eds. Commercialising Fusion Energy - How small businesses are transforming big science
Publisher : Institute of Physics Publishing | Published : Bristol


Conclusions (2020-12)
Nuttall, William; Konishi, Satoshi; Takeda, Shutaro and Webbe-Wood, David
In: Nuttall, William; Takeda, Shutaro; Konishi, Satoshi and Webbe-Wood, David eds. Commercialising Fusion Energy - How small businesses are transforming big science
ISBN : 9780750327190 | Publisher : Institute of Physics Publishing | Published : Bristol


Non-power applications - new missions for nuclear energy to be delivered safely and securely (2020-08-17)
Nuttall, William and Neighbour, Gareth
In: Nian, Victor ed. Advanced Security and Safeguarding in the Nuclear Power Industry (pp. 29-47)
ISBN : 978-0-12-818256-7 | Publisher : Academic Press | Published : 125 London Wall, London EC2Y 5AS, United Kingdom


Non-power applications of nuclear energy (2020-08-04)
Nuttall, William and Neighbour, Gareth
In: Nian, Victor ed. Advanced Security and Safeguarding in the Nuclear Power Industry: State of the Art and Future Challenges
ISBN : 9780128182567 | Publisher : Academic Press


Conclusions (2019-10-21)
Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro; Nuttall, William; Gibson, David and Trzmielak, Dariusz
In: Nuttall, William J; Gibson, David V; Trzmielak, Dariusz and Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro eds. Energy and Mobility in Smart Cities (pp. 231-235)
ISBN : 9780727764256 | Publisher : ICE Publishing


Historic European cities and the smart future (2019-10-21)
Nuttall, William
In: Nuttall, William J; Gibson, David V; Trzmielak, Dariusz and Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro eds. Energy and Mobility in Smart Cities (pp. 19-29)
ISBN : 9780727764256 | Publisher : ICE Publishing


Technology Assessment of Near-Term Open-Cycle Thorium-Fuelled Nuclear Energy Systems (2019)
Nuttall, W. J.; Ashley, S. F.; Fenner, R. A.; Krishnani, P. D. and Parks, G. T.
In: Nayak, A. K. and Sehgal, B. R. eds. Thorium - Energy for the Future: Selected Papers from ThEC15 (pp. 117-124)
ISBN : 978-981-13-2657-8 | Publisher : Springer


Scotland, Nuclear Energy Policy and Independence (2017-08-15)
Heffron, Raphael J. and Nuttall, William J.
In: Wood, Geoffrey and Baker, Keith eds. A Critical Review of Scottish Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Policy. Energy, Climate and the Environment (pp. 103-126)
ISBN : 978-3-319-56897-3 | Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan | Published : Cham, Switzerland


The present status of nuclear third-party liability and nuclear insurance (2016-06)
Ashley, Stephen F.; Nuttall, William J. and Heffron, Raphael J.
In: Heffron, Raphael J. and Little, Gavin F. M. eds. Delivering energy law and policy in the EU and the US: A reader (pp. 251-255)
ISBN : 978-0-7486-9679-6 | Publisher : Edinburgh University Press | Published : Edinburgh


Smart Meters, Grids and Criminality (2015)
Nuttall, William; Bompard, Ettore and Masera, Marcelo
In: Gibson, David and Slovak, Jan eds. Building Sustainable R&D Centres in Emerging Technology Regions (pp. 131-143)
ISBN : 978-80-210-7854-3 | Publisher : Masaryk University | Published : Brno, Czech Republic


Nuclear Energy in the UK: Safety Culture and Industrial Organisation (2014)
Nuttall, William J. and Earp, John E.
In: Nam, Ilchong and Rothwell, Geoffrey eds. New Nuclear Power Industry Procurement Market: International Experiences. Research Monographs (2014-01) (pp. 142-183)
ISBN : 978-89-8063902-1 | Publisher : Korea Development Institute | Published : Sejong-Si, South Korea


Commercialising Fusion Energy - how small businesses are transforming big science (2020-12)
Nuttall, William; Webbe-Wood, David; Konishi, Satoshi and Takeda, Shutaro eds.
Publisher : Institute of Physics Publishing | Published : Bristol


Energy and Mobility in Smart Cities: International perspectives on innovation (2019-10-25)
Nuttall, William J.; Gibson, David V.; Trzmielak, Dariusz and Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro eds.
ISBN : 9780727764256 | Publisher : ICE Publishing | Published : London


The Future of Helium as a Natural Resource (2012-04-26)
Nuttall, William; Clarke, Richard and Glowacki, Bartek eds.
Routledge Explorations in Environmental Economics
ISBN : 978-0-415-57697-0 | Publisher : Routledge | Published : Abingdon, UK


Security of Energy Supply in Europe: Natural Gas, Nuclear and Hydrogen (2010)
Lévêque, François; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Barquin, Julian; von Hirschhausen, Christian; Holz, Franziska and Nuttall, William J. eds.
Loyola de Palacio Series on European Energy Policy
ISBN : 978-1-84980-032-7 | Publisher : Edward Elgar | Published : Cheltenham, UK


Energy and Innovation: Structural Change and Policy Implications (2010)
van Geenhuizen, Marina; Nuttall, William J.; Gibson, David and Oftedal, Elin M. eds.
International Series on Technology Policy and Innovation
ISBN : 9781557535788 | Publisher : Purdue University Press | Published : West Lafayette, IN


Renewable Integration in Island Electricity Systems – A System Dynamics Assessment (2016-01-26)
Matthew, George; Nuttall, William J.; Mestel, Ben; Dooley, Laurence and Ferrão, Paulo Manuel
In : 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management (24-26 Feb 2016, Singapore) (pp. 107-119)


Insights into the Thermal Generation Futures of Isolated Island Electricity Systems Using System Dynamics (2015-08)
Matthew, George Jr. S.; Nuttall, William; Mestel, Ben and Dooley, Laurence
In : Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society (19-23 Jul 2015, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA)


The early phase of a radiation accident: revisiting thinking on evacuation and exclusion zones (2013)
French, Simon; Argyris, Nikolaos; Nuttall, William; Moriarty, John and Thomas, Philip
In : 10th ISCRAM Conference (12-15 May 2013, Baden-Baden, Germany) (pp. 296-300)


A system dynamics study of uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle (2013)
Rooney, Matthew; Nuttall, William and Kazantzis, Nikolas
In : 31st International Conference of the System Dynamics Society (21-25 Jul 2013, Cambridge Massachusetts USA)


On the proliferation resistance of thorium-uranium nuclear fuel (2012-05-10)
Ashley, Steve; Nuttall, William; Parks, Geoffrey and Worrall, Andrew
In : UK Project on Nuclear Issues (PONI), Annual Conference 2012 (10 May 2012, London, UK)


Smart energy grids and complexity science (2012)
Bompard, Ettore; Connors, Steve; Fulli, Gianluca; Han, Bei; Masera, Marcelo; Mengolini, Anna and Nuttall, William J.
In : Smart Energy Grids and Complexity Science (25 Jun 2012, Petten NL) (pp. 44-47)


The future of helium? A global agency to oversee production, storage, supply and use of helium gas and liquid (2012)
Scurlock, Ralph; Clarke, Richard; Glowacki, Bartek and Nuttall, William
In : 12th Cryogenics IIR International Conference (11-14 Sep 2012, Dresden, Germany)


How nuclear energy can help make all UK electricity green by 2035 (2021-10-06)
Nuttall, William
The Conversation Trust (UK) Limited, London.


Smart cities - pushed by hopes and fears (2021-04-01)
Nuttall, William
Institution of Civil Engineers Publishing, London.


Fukushima: ten years on from the disaster, was Japan’s response right? (2021-03-10)
Nuttall, William and Thomas, Philip
The Conversation Trust (UK) Limited - a not for profit educational entity., London.


Will COVID-19 and Cheap Oil Green Our Energy Future? Energy Policy Research Group (2020-05-07)
Nuttall, William and Bakenne, Adetokunboh
University of Cambridge, Cambridge.


Energy and the Military: Leading by Example (2019-05-21)
Samaras, Constantine; Bazilian, Morgan and Nuttall, William
Yale University USA


Energy and the Military: Convergence of Security, Economic, and Environmental Decision-Making (2017-11-20)
Nuttall, William J.; Samaras, Constantine and Bazilian, Morgan
Energy Policy Research Group, Working Paper 1717, University of Cambridge.


Next Steps for Hydrogen - physics, technology and the future (2016-05-26)
Nuttall, William; Glowacki, Bartek and Krishnamurthy, Satheesh
Institute of Physics, London.