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House Style

The following conventions in relation to presentation should be taken into account when submitting material for consideration in the journal.  This information has been updated as we only publish the journal online. 

Figures and diagrams

These can be in greyscale (black and white) or colour and must be clearly labelled and numbered: Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. and not with roman numerals. They should be incorporated into the document and be fully legible and labelled correctly (using landscape format if more appropriate) for the reader to understand the information. Where charts are used, they must be legible and clearly labelled for easy identification. 


These should be kept to a minimum and legible using a landscape format if more appropriate. Tables must be referred to in the text and should supplement rather than duplicate data. They should be numbered consecutively: Table 1, Table 2, etc. and given adequate titles and headings. 

Photographs and illustrations

These should be kept to a minimum. They should be incorporated within the document and should be clear and of good quality (.jpeg or .png are advised) and can be black and white or colour. 

Abbreviations and acronyms

Explain all abbreviations and acronyms at the first occurrence, bearing in mind the international readership. Try not to use abbreviations or acronyms at the start of a sentence.


References must be included for every item referred to in the article and should be presented in the Harvard style.

A quote or paraphrase from an author should be cited in the text with the author's surname, year of publication and the page number(s) in brackets, e.g. (Jary and Parker, 1998: 20).

At the end of the article, references should be presented in a References section as follows:

For books: Jary, D. and Parker, M. (eds) (1998) The New Higher Education: Issues and Directions for the Post-Dearing University, Stoke on Trent: Staffordshire University Press.

(Surname, initials. (date) title, place of publication: publisher.)

For articles in books: Rouse, D. and Griffin, S. (1992) 'Quality for the Under Threes' in Geoff Pugh (ed.) Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, London: Paul Chapman.

(Surname, initials. (date) 'title of article' in author of book title of book, place of publication: publisher.)

For articles in journals, periodicals and magazines: Comfort, L.K. (1993) 'Integrating Information Technology into International Crisis Management and Policy', Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 1, 1: 15-27.

(Surname, initials. (date) 'title of article', title of journal/periodical/magazine, volume number, issue number: page numbers.)

For articles in newspapers: Attwood, R. (2007) 'Lack of self-belief deters poor students', Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 February 2007, News section: 3.

(Surname, initials. (date) 'title of article', title of newspaper, date, name of section: page number(s).)

For articles from the Internet (if the source is online only or there is doubt about whether the article appeared in print): BBC (2005) 'University drop-out rate rising', 22 September 2005, at (accessed: 13 March 2007).

(Organisation/surname, initials. (date) 'title of article', date, at web address (accessed: date accessed).)