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James Cooley Fletcher was an American Presbyterian minister who also served as a missionary in South America, particularly in Brazil. He travelled extensively throughout Brazil and in 1867 he co-wrote a book on the country and its people. He befriended the Emperor Dom Pedro and also influenced Brazilian politicians to bring about several socio-economic reforms in the country. After several trips to Brazil over a period of almost 20 years he was nominated consul at Oporto in Portugal and later worked as a missionary in Naples.