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In this programme Dr John Blunden discusses various attempts to analyse and quantify the spatial structure of urban zones. He selects Chicago as an illustration because of the large amount of relev...ant research done there. In particular E W Burgess and his Concentric Zone theory, and Homer Hoyt's sectoral model are considered and Dr Blunden integrates both into a composite model. However, these analyses concentrate on residential land use, rather than considering all forms of land usage. So to broaden the study Dr Blunden turns to an exposition of the Chicago Area Transportation Study. This explored the relationship between traffic and land use, tracing the way Chicago has developed since 1840 and breaking down the present day usage into seven categories: residential, streets, open spaces, transportation, manufacturing, public buildings and commercial. Dr Blunden then points out that this kind of land use analysis takes no account of the density of development. This requires a third dimension to be added to the purely two dimensional spatial models. Various models are considered measuring, for instance, person/trips, and the floor area per acre of buildings. The programme is illustrated by location film of the city and animated and diagrams.
Metadata describing this Open University video programme
Module code and title: D100, Understanding society: a foundation course
Item code: D100; 21
First transmission date: 06-06-1971
Published: 1971
Rights Statement:
Restrictions on use:
Duration: 00:24:10
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Producer: Roger Tucker
Contributor: John Blunden
Publisher: BBC Open University
Keyword(s): Chicago; Hobohemia; O'Hare Internationl Airport; Skid Row
Footage description: Several shots of Chicago. Commentary gives brief background. John Blunden introduces the unit. He explains why Chicago was chosen as an urban area for land use studies. Blunden discusses the work of EW Burgess who studied Chicago in the inter-war period. Shot of his concentric ring model of land use. Blunden provides the commentary. He explains the model which can be applied to any city and then discusses it in relation to Chicago itself. Film shots of Chicago's Skid Row and Hobohemia showing life in one of Burgess land use zones. Blunden takes up Homer Hoyt's model of urban land use as an alternative to EW Burgess model. The model is sectoral rather than concentric. Shots' of both Hoyt's and Burgess' models. The two models are integrated and applied to Chicago and result in a more sophisticated model of land use patterns for the city. Even the integrated model however is limited to generalisation about residential land use. Blunden explains that specific empirical studies of measuring actual land use are needed to come up with a complete explanation of urban land use. He introduces the Chicago Area Transport Study as such a study. Historical development of Chicago traced. Shots of the city during various stages of its development. The film shows the relationship between growing transport facilities and land use. Shot of a graph showing types of land use and the percentage of the city each takes :- residential, roads and highways, open spaces, etc. Shots of surburban residential areas in Chicago. Shots of expressways linking the surburbs with city centre. Shot of city streets and roads. Shot of map of Chicago urban area showing land use for roads and highways. Shot of public open spaces in Chicago. This is an important area of land use. The shots are of parks, golf courses, etc. and of Cook County forest in both summer and winter. Transportation as a catagory of urban land use examined. Shots of a Chicago railway station. Shots of the "Loop", the elevated railway. Shots of O'Hare International Airport. Commercial land use in Chicago examined. Map shows distribution of commercial land. Shots of the central business district of Chicago. Shot of a graph showing percentage of land use against distaiiee from city centre for the various types of land use. Blunden provides the commentary. Blunden examines density measurements for each type of land use and tells how the measurements were taken. Graph shows the density per acre for each type of use at various distances from the city centre, Shots of 19th cent, belt driven machinery inside a factory. Shot of a modern factory in Chicago. (Aerial view). Density of floor area is examined as another way of determining population density. Shots of several residential areas of Chicago (high rent). Model showing density of floor area in Chicago. Shots of high residential areas along the lake side. Person/trip model shows the number of journeys made by any one person to a given square mile on an average weekday, showing the relationship of travel to urban land use. Blunden sums up with a discussion on the use of models for examining urban land use. He sums up other factors to be taken into account. Credits.
Master spool number: 6HT/70159
Production number: 00520_1221
Videofinder number: 3381
Available to public: no