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Dr John Blunden, Senior Lecturer in Geography, examines Chiistaller's Central Place Theory, as applied to part of South Hampshire, and considers the relationship between urban centres and their hinterlands. The role of Southampton as a shopping centre for surrounding districts supports Christaller's theory which defines a 'central place' as a settlement which provides one or uore services for the people living outside it. But Dr Blunden points out that cities and large towns owe their importance to other factors besides their provision of services for rural hinterlands. He cites the examples of the functions of Southampton and Portsmouth as ports, and Winchester's role as an ecclesiastical and administrative centre. Dr Blunden describes the research at the University of Southampton, of Wayne Davies and G W Robinson, who attempted to calculate the nature and extent of the relationship between centres in the Solent region and their hinterlands. Villages and towns were placed in a ranking order by comparing the number of shopping trips made to them, and for each rank four types of shopping connection were identified which interconnect the sub areas. Dr Blunden examines in detail representative examples of Davies and Robinson's findings and shows how these can be correlated with a map of bus services in the area. He concludes by referring to the possible implications of this analysis for the structure of local government.
Metadata describing this Open University video programme
Module code and title: D100, Understanding society: a foundation course
Item code: D100; 22
First transmission date: 28-05-1972
Published: 1972
Rights Statement:
Restrictions on use:
Duration: 00:24:30
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Producer: Roger Tucker
Contributor: John Blunden
Publisher: BBC Open University
Keyword(s): Interaction; Paddington
Footage description: Blunden introduces the programme on the relationship between urban and rural areas. Aerial views of Southampton, shots of Bargate, a painting of medieval Soton and a map of the old walled city in relation to the spread of modern Soton. Blunden discusses how geographers regard the administrative classification of rural and urban. He explains the fundamentals of Central Place Theory as expounded by Walter Christaller, introducing such terms as "settlement nodes" hierarchy of functions, low order goods, high order goods. Shots of Blunden in front of Bargate; streets and traffic in Totton; supermarkets and other shops in the centre of Southampton. Number of interviews asking shoppers what goods they came to Southampton to shop for. From this Blunden points out the weaknesses of Central Place theory and points out other reasons for the importance of Southampton. Graphic map of whole of Solent area. Aerial views Southampton, the docks, Portsmouth and docks, Winchester and cathedral. Main part of programme will deal with quantifying relationships between rural shoppers and urban centres. This is done using data collected by Wayne Davies and G.W. Robinson at Southampton University in 1967. Blunden elaborates on how data was collected, what was included, what was excluded and why. Map of Solent area showing survey area which is then divided into 93 sub-areas which were all investigated. 4 sub areas come under special class analysis - Chilworth, Baddesley, Crampmoor and Romsey - endeavouring to build up a matrix of connectivity showing the relationships between rural areas and urban nodes. Shots of Chilworth. Map of sub area used in connection with Southampton and Winchester. Picture of matrix of connectivity. Each sub-area is examined in turn, as Blunden describes the data it is entered on the map of sub-areas, plus Southampton and Winchester. The Figures are entered on the matrix of connectivity, which Blunden explains in more detail. Having added the figures to the matrix diagram, these numbers are then ranked in terms of importance as shopping centres. From these rankings 4 possible types of shopping connections between areas are developed. Map of selected sub areas with one added, Hythe, showing ranks of fltow. This produces three nodes - isolated, subsidiary and dominant - at a given rank of flow. The entire survey data is now brought in and Blunden explains what was done with it over various maps. Map of first rank connections within whole Solent survey area showing 9 dominent nodes. Subsidiary and isolated nodes are also highlighted on the survey zone map. The same process is carried out on the map for second rank connections. Survey results then used to derive a classification of nodal centres and hinterlands for the whole region. Gradual map animation of Solent survey zone map to show first and second rank hinterlands, how definable they were etc. Southampton's hinterland structure is looked at more closed Totten is used as an example of dependance. Shots of Totten, streets, shops etc. Shots of W. bank of Southampton water. Marchwood power station. Fawlay refinery etc. This is used to show the development of Wythe and its own new shopping complex. Shots of housing, shops in Hythe and Dibden Purlieu. Its ranked relationship to Southampton as a shopping centre is examined. Blunden interviews shoppers using Hythe - Soton Ferry as to their reasons for using Soton. Shots of Ferry, piers etc. Blunden sums up. What does the survey reveal about central place theory, ranked hinterlands, hierachy of goods etc. He also shows how using bus service area boundaries would show similarities with map of first ranking connections. He also points out the practical value of such research. Credits over aerial pan over Southampton.
Master spool number: 6HT/ 700
Production number: 00520_1222
Available to public: no