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By looking at experiments on frogs, plants, insects, and at work done on genetic counselling clinics, the programme gains insights into the genetic control of differentiation and morphogenesis.
Metadata describing this Open University video programme
Module code and title: S101, Science: a foundation course
Item code: S101; 25
First transmission date: 28-08-1979
Published: 1979
Rights Statement:
Restrictions on use:
Duration: 00:24:00
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Producer: Denis Gartside
Contributors: Hamish Collin; Irene Ridge; Mike Ashburner; Dian Donnai
Publisher: BBC Open University
Subject terms: Genetics; Morphogenesis
Footage description: Film of a woman giving birth. Time lapse shot of cells growing and dividing and film of a newborn baby being swaddled. Commentary by Irene Ridge introduces the programme. She points out the two processes, differentiation of embryonic cells and morphogenes which occur during development from egg to adult. In order to demonstrate that genetic information is not lost in differentiated cells, an experiment is shown in which the nucleus of a differentiated frog cell is transplanted to a frog egg cell. A normal adult frog develops. Commentary by Irene Ridge. Hamish Collin describes his experiments, at Liverpool University, on differentiated plant cells which can be induced to grow into normal plants when placed into the correct chemical environment. Film shots show parts of the experiments. These show evidence for the chemical control of gene activity in plants. Mike Ashburner describes some of his experiments on the chemical control of metamorphosis of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. He points out that when examining the chromosomes of the fruitfly, it is possible to see the genes being activated by the hormone ecdysone. Ashburner draws attention to 'puffs' on a micrograph of a chromosome which indicate active genes. An animation shows how the hormone ecdysone acts on genes to produce these 'puffs'. Irene Ridge briefly sums up the programme so far. Micrograph showing 'puffs' in chromosomes, of mitosis in an animal cell, and of an adult drosophila emerging from its larval shell as she talks. Ridge goes on to introduce the next sequence over shots of embryo formation and intra-uterine shots of foetus development. The rest of the programme is centred on a genetic counselling clinic. It consists of shots of various patients with genetic disorders and a commentary by Dian Donnai and Irene Ridge which describes these disorders. The first case is one of a family of achondroplastic dwarfs. Donnai uses a diagram to explain to the family how this characteristic is inherited. Shots of a sample of human white blood cells being prepared for chromosome analysis. Commentary by Ridge explains the process. Shots of patients at the clinic with Down's syndrome. Donnai describes the condition. Shots of a trisomic 13 child with its mother. Donnai describes the various forms of disability which this genetic disease can take. Still shots of severely deformed babies. Over an animation showing the mapping of chromosome 13, Irene Ridge explains what areas of development each section of the chromosome is responsible for. Ridge sums up the programme.
Master spool number: OU2957
Production number: FOUS025D
Videofinder number: 1200
Available to public: no