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Professor Rose opens the programme and states that the intention of this programme is to step outside the studio based laboratory set used in the previous five programmes, and capture on film the of some of the biochemical techniques seen in programmes 1-5, in the field of clinical biochemistry and in the large scale industrial production of enzyme. Professor Rose introduces R. Cordell, another member of the biochemistry Course Team, who was associated with the filming and who introduces and links and commentates the following film sequences. 1. The routine screening of a baby for inborn metabolic disease such as phenylketonuria (PKU). 2. The separation of lactate dehydrogenase iso enzymes as used in following the progress of a heart attack. 3. The industrial preparation of an enzyme. The enzyme chosen was glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (G.O.T.) and the source, pig hearts. The preparaticn of this enzyme starts with 100 kgs. of pig hearts and ends up with a few grams of pure enzyme. The preparation involves the large scale application of such biochemical techniques as were used in the laboratory preparation of hexokinase.
Metadata describing this Open University video programme
Item code: S2-1; 06
First transmission date: 07-10-1972
Published: 1972
Rights Statement:
Restrictions on use:
Duration: 00:23:56
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Producer: Roger Jones
Contributors: Robert Cordell; Stephen Rose
Publisher: BBC Open University
Keyword(s): Biochemical techniques in practice; Clinical biochemistry; G.O.T. enzyme; Industrial preparation of enzymes; Infant screening; Large scale enzyme production; Pig hearts; Separation of lactate dehydrogenase iso-enzymes
Footage description: Stephen Rose introduces the programme. Bob Cordell introduces the film sequence on testing for PKU (phenylketonuria) in a hospital laboratory. Shots of a blook sample for PKU testing being taken from the foot of a baby. (Cordell provides the commentary for this film sequence). Shots of blood samples being tested for PKU. (Commentary explains the technique used). Samples from 100 babies are tested at the same time. Shots of paper chromatography patterns of normal and PKU baby. Chrometography is used to further analyse samples of PKU suspects from the test above. Cordell discusses the amount of biochemical testing for diseases which is done in Britain. He introduces a non-automated test for checking the serum level of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, an indicator of heart attacks. Film sequence of the test. Electrophoresis is used to separate proteins in the serum which has been centrifuged. The serum is treated with dye to make the proteins visible. (Cordell provides the commentary for this film sequence). Shot of the gel after electrophoresis. Shots of technique for isolating the iso-enzymes after electrophoresis and extracting it. The The iso enzymes, now isolated, are put into a spectrophotometer and monitored on a chart recorder. Shots of the chart tracing for a normal patient and a patient following a heart attack. They are very different Cordell introduces the film sequence on the industrial production of enzymes. Film sequence of the production of the enzyme glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (G.O.T.) from pigs hearts. (Cordell's commentary explains the process each step of the way.) Shots of hearts being cut and minced. Shots of minced hearts being mixed with buffer which extracts the proteins. The resultant mixture is strained to isolate the liquor. Shot of a liquor sample being assayed by spectrophotometer. Shots of liquor undergoing the first amonium sulphate cut (salting out) to precipitate out unwanted proteins. These are removed by centrifugation. Further salting out and centrifugation is done. Shots of the precipitate containing the G.O.T. undergoing dialysis. Shots of the dialysed precipitate being further purified by being pumped into a CM column. (Impurities are washed through but G.O.T. sticks to the column) The process is continuously monitored by a spectrophotometer. Cordell with the chart produced by the spectrophotometer explains what has happened in the CM column. Return to film sequence. The extract from the CM column is vacuum filtered. A very high concentration of G.O.T. results. This is precipated out by amonium sulphate (salting out). Stephen Rose sums up the programme.
Master spool number: 6LT/70561
Production number: 00521_2132
Videofinder number: 2820
Available to public: no