Science and health: an evidence-based approach
This key introductory module introduces the science of human health and is structured around eight globally important health topics, ranging from nutrition and infectious diseases to pain and breast cancer screening. Each topic integrates key concepts in the biological, chemical and physical sciences with psychology and health statistics to illuminate the causes of disease and disability and the consequence for individuals and populations. You will also develop the skills you need for further study of the health sciences, including evaluating evidence; handling numbers; presenting data; writing skills; and using information technology.
What you will study
This module is studied online and presented through eight globally important health topics:
Topic 1: Infectious disease
The emergence of ‘new’ infections such as HIV/AIDS and Ebola and the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria are among many signs that infectious diseases still threaten global health. This topic describes the range of infectious agents and the diseases they cause and the risk factors that increase exposure or susceptibility to infection. It reviews the contribution of hand hygiene, sanitation, an effective immune system, vaccination programmes and other defences against infection and the difficulties faced in protecting the world’s population – particularly young children – from infectious diseases.
Topic 2: Nutrition and malnutrition
Poor nutrition is a major underlying cause of death and disability worldwide. A third of all child deaths are a result of insufficient nutrition, but obesity has also increased rapidly in many countries, with consequences that include increased diabetes and heart disease. This topic looks at why we need food and how our bodies process it. You will learn about body systems, tissues and cells as well as the components of a healthy diet, the chemical composition of nutrient molecules and the biology of digestion and nutrient absorption. Finally, you will explore the causes and consequences of poor nutrition and some interventions that could reduce nutrition-related disease.
Topic 3: Understanding and treating pain
This topic is an integrated account of the psychosocial and neurobiological aspects of pain. It considers the common properties of pain triggered by physical injuries and the pain of events such as divorce, and explores how you might measure these experiences of pain. You’ll study the structure and function of the nervous system and how the activity within it can cause and modulate the perception of pain. Finally, you will learn how different pain treatments are evaluated and used in the clinic.
Topic 4: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Permanent loss of lung function due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects millions of people worldwide. In wealthy countries, most people with COPD are older cigarette smokers, but in poorer countries, younger women and children exposed to indoor smoke from cooking fires also suffer from this condition. This case study explains the science of respiration, the effects of COPD on people’s lives and the treatment and prevention of COPD.
Topic 5: Acute trauma and recovery
Stroke and traumatic injury cause millions of deaths and disabilities globally and both are rising as populations age and the volume of road traffic increases. You will look at how the body reacts to tissue damage, focusing on brain lesions and limb fractures in younger and older people. The psychological – as well as the physical – effects of injury are considered in the context of variations in access to emergency and longer-term care.
Topic 6: Alcohol and human health
Heavy drinking increases the risk of life-threatening diseases, accidental injury, psychological impairment, and addiction, but many people argue that moderate intake has some health benefits. You’ll explore global trends in alcohol use, the chemistry of alcohol, how alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream and its effects on the body’s major organs and on behaviour and memory.
Topic 7: Screening for breast cancer
Mammography screening using X-ray imaging to detect early breast cancers in women occurs in most wealthy countries. This topic explains how breast cancer develops, the risk factors associated with the development of breast cancer, the rationale for screening and how the screening technology works. It also considers the debate about the benefits and drawbacks of screening and explores the tests used to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer.
Topic 8: Sight: a window on the world
Partial or total loss of sight affects millions of people worldwide, and has an enormous impact at the level of the individual, their family, and wider society. In this topic you’ll learn about the science of sight, how the eye works and how it can malfunction to cause the common forms of impaired vision. Many cases of sight loss are preventable or curable, and you’ll see how a range of approaches from all the health sciences can contribute to restoring vision. This topic will also give you the opportunity to revisit the knowledge and skills that you have acquired in earlier parts of the module, and will help you prepare for the end of module assessment.
This is a key introductory OU level 1 module. It provides core subject knowledge and the study skills for both higher education and distance learning that will help you progress to modules at OU level 2.
The module is designed for students who are new to science as well as those with some background in a science-related subject. Although you’re not expected to have any previous knowledge of science, you should be able to do simple calculations (add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers) and to understand written English of the standard of a broadsheet newspaper (for example The Daily Telegraph or The Guardian). If you haven’t studied science or maths up to GCSE level fairly recently, or you’re new to using a computer to access online resources, you may need to spend slightly longer on the study materials. An adviser will be able to discuss with you how much extra time you are likely to need and whether you should consider completing an OU Access module or some preparatory study before beginning SDK100.
Our online self-assessment package Are you ready for SDK100? offers an interactive quiz to help you decide whether you have the recommended background knowledge to start the module.
Successful completion of this module will equip you to go on to study Investigating psychology 1 (DE100), Science: concepts and practice (S112) or any of the OU level 2 health sciences modules: Human biology (SK299), Cell biology (S294) or The science of the mind: investigating mental health (SDK228). By the end of this module you will be expected to be working successfully at the level required of first-year undergraduate students.
If you have any doubt about the suitability of the module, please speak to an adviser.
The module website includes some induction materials that will help you learn to navigate the website, organise your study materials and start developing a personal development plan. You will be able to access the module website 2-3 weeks before the module starts so that you can work through these activities.
If you wish to improve your study skills, you are advised to read The Good Study Guide (2005) by Andy Northedge, published by The Open University.
All of the study materials for this module are provided online on the module website.
You will need
You will find it useful to have a simple calculator as well as a notebook and pen for note taking and working out your answers to self-assessment questions and activities.
You may need to draw diagrams or graphs and then use either a scanner or a digital camera to produce files of these diagrams for inclusion in your assessments.
The module includes some simple home projects and a home experiment which may require some basic kitchen equipment, including a kitchen weighing scale, a means of boiling water, a 1-litre measuring jug, a clock or watch, a teaspoon, dried baker’s yeast and sugar.
A computing device with a browser and broadband internet access is required for this module. Any modern browser will be suitable for most computer activities. Functionality may be limited on mobile devices.
Any additional software will be provided, or is generally freely available. However, some activities may have more specific requirements. For this reason, you will need to be able to install and run additional software on a device that meets the requirements below.
A desktop or laptop computer with either:
- Windows 7 or higher
- Mac OS X 10.7 or higher
The screen of the device must have a resolution of at least 1024 pixels horizontally and 768 pixels vertically.
To join in the spoken conversation in our online rooms we recommend a headset (headphones or earphones with an integrated microphone).
Our Skills for OU study website has further information including computing skills for study, computer security, acquiring a computer and Microsoft software offers for students.